Effectiveness of motivationally adaptive computer-assisted instruction on the dynamic aspects of motivation

  • Sang H. Song
  • John M. Keller

DOI: 10.1007/BF02504925

Cite this article as:
Song, S.H. & Keller, J.M. ETR&D (2001) 49: 5. doi:10.1007/BF02504925


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a prototype of motivationally-adaptive computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The foundation for motivational theory and design was provided by the ARCS model (an acronym formed from attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction). This model provides a definition of motivation, a motivational design process, and recommendations for motivational strategies. Three treatment conditions were considered: (a) motivationally adaptive CAI, (b) motivationally saturated CAI, and (c) motivationally minimized CAI. Dependent variables were effectiveness, perceived motivation (both overall motivation and each of A, R, C, & S components), efficiency, and continuing motivation. The motivationally adaptive CAI showed higher effectiveness, overall motivation, and attention than the other two CAI types. For efficiency, both motivationally adaptive CAI and motivationally minimized CAI were higher than motivationally saturated CAI. For continuing motivation, there were no significant differences among the three CAI types, but a significant correlation was found between overall motivation and continuing motivation across the three CAI types. This study supports the conclusion that CAI can be designed to be motivationally adaptive to respond to changes in learner motivation that may occur over time. It also illustrates that the ARCS model can be useful and effective in support of designing for these dynamic aspects of motivation.

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sang H. Song
    • 1
  • John M. Keller
    • 2
  1. 1.Andong National UniversityKorea
  2. 2.Florida State UniversityUSA

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