Size-dependent perennation bud formation and its effect on seedling establishment inVeronicastrum sibiricum ssp.japonicum
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Seedling establishment of a perennial,Veronicastrum sibiricum ssp.japonicum colonizing at 1,600 m altitude in Nikko National Park was studied for two years. About half of the first-year seedlings died during the growing season and 45–74 per cent of the seedlings surviving the first summer died during the following winter season. This winter mortality depended on the end-of-season size of the seedling in the previous autumn and was caused mainly by the absence of perennation buds. Seedlings which had emerged on bare ground attained larger size and had higher winter survival than seedlings in a mat of moss. Seedlings germinating in early season attained larger size and had higher probability of winter survival than seedlings germinating in later season.
Key wordsDemography Germination time Perennation bud Seedling establishment Veronicastrum sibiricum Winter mortality
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