Acta Mechanica Sinica

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 209–226 | Cite as

Numerical and experimental investigation of wave dynamic processes in high-speed train/tunnels

  • Jiang Zonglin
  • K. Matsuoka
  • A. Sasoh
  • K. Takayama


Numerical and experimental investigation on wave dynamic processes induced by high-speed trains entering railway tunnels are presented. Experiments were conducted by using a 1:250 scaled train-tunnel simulator. Numerical simulations were carried out by solving the axisymmetric Euler equations with the dispersion-controlled scheme implemented with moving boundary conditions. Pressure histories at various positions inside the train-tunnel simulator at different distance measured from the entrance of the simulator are recorded both numerically and experimentally, and then compared with each other for two train speeds. After the validation of nonlinear wave phenomena, detailed numerical simulations were then conducted to account for the generation of compression waves near the entrance, the propagation of these waves along the train tunnel, and their gradual development into a weak shock wave. Four wave dynamic processes observed are interpreted by combining numerical results with experiments. They are: high-speed trains moving over a free terrain before entering railway tunnels; the abrupt-entering of high-speed trains into railway tunnels; the abrupt-entering of the tail of high-speed trains into railway tunnels; and the interaction of compression and expansion waves ahead of high-speed trains. The effects of train-tunnel configuration, such as the train length and the train-tunnel blockage ratio, on these wave processes have been investigated as well.

Key Words

high-speed train tennel sonic boom numerical simulation experiments 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hara T. Aerodynamical problems when train is running into tunnel with large velocity. Railway Technical Research Report, the Railway Technical Research Institute Japan, 1960. 61 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ozawa S. Investigation of pressure ware radiated from a tunnel exit. Railway Technical Research Report, the Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan, 1976. 1023 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ozawa S. Studies of micro-pressure wave radiated from a tunnel exit. Railway Technical Research Report, the Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan, 1979, 1121 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sajben M. Fluid mechanics of train-tunnel systems in unsteady motion.AIAA Journal, 1971, 9: 1538–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Matsuo K, Aoki T. Wave problems in high-speed railway tunnels. In: Takayama K ed. Proc of the 18th Int Symp on Shock Waves, Sendai, Japan, 1991-7-21-26. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1991. 95–102Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sasoh A, Onodera O, Takayama K, et al. Experimental investigation on the reduction of railway tunnel sonic boom.Jpn Soc Mech Eng, 1994, 580: 4112–4118Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kage K, Miyake H, Kawagoe S. Numerical study of compression waves produced by high-speed trains entering a tunnel.JSME Int Journal, Series B, 1995, 38: 191–198Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Owaga T, Fujii K. Numerical simulation of compressible flows induced by a train moving into a tunnel.Comp Fluid Dynamics J, 1994, 3: 63–82Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takayama K, Sasoh A, Onodera O, et al. Experimental investigation on tunnel sonic boom.Shock Waves, 1995, 5: 127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sasoh A, Matsuoka K, Nakashio K, et al. Attenuation of weak shock waves along pseudo-perforated walls.Shock Waves, 1998, 8: 161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jiang Z. Study on the finite differences theory and numerical methods of weak solutions problems. [Dissertation], Peking University, Beijing, China, 1993Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Steger JL, Warming RF. Flux vector splitting of the inviscid gasdynamic equations with applications to finite difference methods.J Comp Phys, 1981, 40: 263–293MATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang HX, Zhuang FG. NND schemes and its applications to numerical simulation of two and three dimensional flows. In: Proc of the 4th Int Symposium of CFD, Nagoya, Japan, 1998-08-28-31, 1989. 149–152Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang Z, Takayama K, Chen YS. Dispersion conditions for non-oscillatory shock capturing schemes and its applications.Computational Fluid Dynamics J, 1995, 4: 137–150Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang Z, Takayama K, Skews BW. Numerical study on blast flowfields induced by supersonic projectiles discharged from shock tubes.Phys Fluids, 1998, 10(1): 277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiang Zonglin
    • 1
  • K. Matsuoka
    • 2
  • A. Sasoh
    • 2
  • K. Takayama
    • 2
  1. 1.LHD, Institute of MechanicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Shock Wave Research Center, Institute of Fluid ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations