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Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels: A state-of-the-art review

Abstract

Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels, more commonly known as duplex stainless steels, or DSS for short, consist of two basic phases. One is austenite, A, and the other is ferrite, F, present in about equal amounts (but not less than 30% each). The two phases owe their corrosion resistance to the high chromium content. Compared to austenitic stainless steels, ASS, they are stronger (without sacrificing ductility), resist corrosion better, and cost less due to their relatively low nickel content. DSS can be used in an environment where standard ASS are not durable enough, such as chloride solutions (ships, petrochemical plant, etc.). Due to their low nickel content and the presence of nickel, DSS have good weldability. However, they have a limited service temperature range (from −40 to 300°) because heating may cause them to give up objectionable excess phases and lower the threshold of cold brittleness in the heat-affected zone of welded joints. State-of-the art DSS are alloyed with nitrogen to stabilize their austenite, and in this respect the nitrogen does the job of nickel. Also, nitrogen enhances the strength and resistance to pitting and improves the structure of welds.

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Translated from Metallovedenie i Termicheskaya Obrabotka Metallov, No. 10, pp. 20–29, October, 1997.

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Voronenko, B.I. Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels: A state-of-the-art review. Met Sci Heat Treat 39, 428–437 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02484228

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Keywords

  • Welding
  • Ferrite
  • Austenite
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Weld Metal