Computational evolution of human bipedal walking by a neuro-musculo-skeletal model
- 309 Downloads
The acquisition process of bipedal walking in humans was simulated using a neuro-musculo-skeletal model and genetic algorithms, based on the assumption that the shape of the body has been adapted for locomotion. The model was constructed as 10 two-dimensional rigid links with 26 muscles and 18 neural oscillators. Bipedal walking was generated as a mutual entrainment between neural oscillations and the pendulous movement of body dynamics. Evolutionary strategies incorporated, for example, as fitness in the genetic algorithms were assumed to decrease energy consumption, muscular fatigue, and load on the skeletal system. An initial population of 50 individuals was created, and an evolutionary simulation of 5000 steps was conducted. As a result, the shape of the body changed from that of a chimpanzee to that of a modern human, and the body size nearly reached the size of a modern human. These simulation results show that improving locomotive efficiency and reducing the load on the musculo-skeletal system are important factors affecting the evolution of the human body shape and bipedal walking. Such computer simulations help us to understand the process of evolution and adaptation for locomotion in humans.
Key wordsBipedal walking Evolution Neuro-musculoskeletal model Genetic algorithms
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ray TS (1991) An approach to the synthesis of life. In: Langton CG, Taylor C, Farmer JD, Rasmussen S (eds) Artificial life, II. Addison-Wesley, Reading, pp 371–408Google Scholar
- 2.Toquenaga Y, Ichinose M, Hoshino T et al. (1994) Contest and scramble competitions in an artificial world: genetic analysis with genetic algorithms. In: Langton CG (ed) Artifical life, III. Addison-Wesley, Reading, pp 177–199Google Scholar
- 3.Sims K (1994) Evolving 3D morphology and behavior by competition. In: Brooks RA, Maes P (eds) Artificial life, IV, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 28–39Google Scholar
- 4.Yamazaki N (1992) Biomechanical interrelationship among body proportions, posture, and bipedal walking. In: Matano S, Tuttle RH, Ishida H, Goodman M (eds) Topics in Primatology 3. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 243–257Google Scholar
- 8.Yamazaki N (1985) Primate bipedal walking: computer simulation. In: Kondo S (ed) Primate morphophysiology, locomotor analyses and human bipedalism. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 105–130Google Scholar
- 11.Alexander RM, Goldspink G (1977) Mechanics and energetics of animal locomotion. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 13.Campbell BG (1985) Human evolution: an introduction to man's adaptations, 3rd edn. Aldine, New YorkGoogle Scholar