Advertisement

Matériaux et Construction

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 235–254 | Cite as

Fibre reinforcement of cement and concrete

  • R. N. Swamy
19-FRC Committee Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Cement Based Composites

Summary

The concept of reinforcing materials weak in tension is delight-fully simple. Asbestos fibres are known to have been used almost 4,500 years ago to strengthen clay post. The use of continuous reinforcement is as old as reinforced concrete; the use of short, discrete reinforcing elements is relatively new, although the significance of the fibre geometry and the need to improve the fibre shape to obtain adequate fibre-matrix bond was recognised more than fifty years ago. In spite of these early attempts to apply the ideas of composite action to building materials, the development and practical usage of fibre-reinforced cement composites, like reinforced earth, is barely two decades old. The world-wide interest, however, in the potentialities of these new construction materials has resulted in many meetings in the last five years, and the RILEM International Symposium on Fibre Cement Composites to be held in London from 17–17 September, 1975 is another step forward in consolidating the future prospects of these composites. This paper presents a preview of the achievements to date in this area.

Keywords

Carbon Fibre Flexural Strength Fibre Composite Steel Fibre Fibre Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Noro, L.Occupational and “non-occupational” asbestosis in Finland, Amer. Industr. Hygiene Assoc., vol. 29, May–June 1968, pp. 195–200.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Gilson, J. C.Health hazards of asbestos, Composites, Vol. 3, No. 2, March 1972, pp. 57–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Paton, W.Advanced engineering materials based on fibre reinforcement, Trans. Instit. Engin. and Shipbuilders in Scotland, Paper No. 1366, January 1972, pp. 192–225.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Porter, H.F.Preparation of concrete from selection of materials to final disposition, Proc. National Association of cement users, Amer. Conc. Inst., vol. 6, 1910, p. 296.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Graham, G.M.Suspension steel concrete, U.S. Patent No. 983, 274, February 7, 1911.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Ficklin, W.Improvements in reinforced structures and wearing surfaces of hydraulic, bituminous, or like cement, concrete, asphalt or the like, U.K. Patent No. 11,754, May 21, 1914.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Kleinlogel, A.Method for the preparation of a synthetic machinable iron mass, German Patent No. 388,959, January 18, 1920.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Seailles, J.C.High densitv mortar, French Patent No. 514,186. April 21, 1920.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Martin, G.C.Method of forming pipe, U.S. Patent No. 1.633,219, June 21, 1927.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Meischke-Smith, W.Ferroconcrete construction, U.S. Patent No. 1,349.901, August 17, 1920.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Etheridge, H.Concrete construction, U.S. Patent No. 1,913,707, June 13, 1933.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Constantinesco, G.Reinforced concrete, U.S. Patent No. 2,677,955, May 11, 1954, U.K. 1943.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Vidal, H.La terre armée, Ann. Inst. Techn. Bat. et Trav. Publ., July-August 1966.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Romualdi, J.P., Batson, G.B.Mechanics of crack arrest in concrete, J. Engin. Mech. Div. Proc. Amer. Soc. of Civil Engin., Vol. 89, EM 3, June 1963, pp. 147–168.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Krenchel, H.Fibre reinforcement, Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen, 1964, p. 159.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Biryukovich, K.L., Biryukovich, Yu. L., Biryukovich, D.L. —Steklotsement, Budivel'nik, KievGlass fibre reinforced cement. Translated by G.L. Cairns, CERA Trenslation No. 12, Civil Engineering Research Association, London, 1965, p. 41.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    The properties of fibre composites. Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, November 4, 1971, IPC Science and Technology press Ltd. 1971, p. 90.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Prospects for fibre reinforced construction materials, Proc. International Building Exhibition Conference, London. November 24, 1971, Building Research Establishment, 1972, p. 89.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Fibrous concrete construction material for the seventies, Proc. Conference M-28, May 1972, Dept. of the Army, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois, December 1972, p. 246.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Fibrous concretes U.S.A. and U.K., Proc. Symposium, Uni. of Birmingham, September 27, 1972, The Concrete Society, West Midlands Region, Papers 1–5, September 1972.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    New materials in concrete construction, Proc. Conference University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, December 15–17, 1972.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Fibre-reinforced cement composites, Technical Report 51.067, The Concrete Society, London, July 1973, p. 77.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    State-of-the-art report on fibre reinforced concrete, AC I Committee 544, J. Amer. Conc. Inst. Proc. Vol. 70, No. 11, November 1973, pp. 729–744.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Fibre reinforced concrete. Proc. Conf. Properities and applications of fibre reinforced concrete and other fibre reinforced building materials, Uni. of Delft, September 6, 1973, Uni. of Delft, 1974, p. 190.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Fibre reinforced concrete. Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, p. 554.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Comosites-standards, testing and design, Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, April, 8–9, 1974, IPC science and Technology Press, 1974, p. 163.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Wlasnosci Mechaniczne I Struktura Kompozytow Betonowych, Proc.Mechanics of construction composites. Jablona, November 1974, Polska Akademia Nauk, 1974, p. 525.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Goldfein, S.Plastic fibrous reinforcement for Portland cement, US Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, AERDL, Technical Report TR 1757-TR, October 1963, p. 16.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Zonsveld J.J.The marriage of concrete and plastics, Plastica, Vol. 23, No. 10, 1970, pp. 474–484.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Dempster, D.P.Cement-coated tape and its possibilities, Concrete, Vol. 7, No. 12, December 1973, pp. 34–35.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Ali, M.A., Grimer, F.J.Mechanical properties of glass fibre-reinforced gypsum, J. Materials Science, Vol. 4, No. 5, May 1969, pp. 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Ryder, J.F.Glass fibre-reinforced gypsum plaster. Ref. [18]Prospects for fibre reinforced construction materials, Proc. International Building Exhibition Conference, London. November 24, 1971, Building Research Establishment, 1972, pp. 69–86.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Lott, J., Kesler, C.E.Crack propagation in plain concrete. Symp. on structure of Portland cement paste and concrete, Highway Research Board Special Report 90, 1965, pp. 204–218.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Swamy, R.N., Kameswara Rao, C.V.S.Fracture mechanism in concrete systems under uniaxial loading. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, July 1973, pp. 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Romualdi, J.P., Mandel, J.A.Tensile strength of concrete affected by uniformly distributed closely spaced short lengths of wire reinforcements, J. Amer. Conc. Inst. Proc., Vol. 61, No. 6, June 1964, pp. 657–671.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Aveston, J., Cooper, G.A., Kelly, A.Single and multiple fracture. Ref. [17] Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, November 4, 1971, IPC Science and Technology press Ltd. November 1971, pp. 15–24.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Aveston, J., Kelly, A.Theory of multiple fracture of fibrous composites. J. Materials Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, March 1973, pp. 352–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Kelly, A.Some scientific points concerning the mechanics of fibrous composites, Ref. [26], Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, April 8–9, 1974, IPC science and Technology Press, 1974, pp. 9–16.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Kameswara Rao, C.V.S., Swamy, R.N.A statistical theory for the strength of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 4, No. 4, July 1974, pp. 669–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Swamy, R.N.Progress in fibre reinforced concrete. Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, Vol. 68, No. 806, September 1973, pp. 745–754.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Swamy, R.N.Fibre reinforced concrete is here to stay, Civil Engineering and Public Works Review, Vol. 68, No. 809, December 1973, pp. 1075–1081.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S., Kameswara Rao, C.V.S.The mechanics of fibre reinforcement of cement matrices, Ref. [25], Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Kar, J.N., Pal, A.K.Strength of fibre-reinforced concrete, J. Struct. Div., Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engin., Vol. 98, ST 5, May 1972, pp. 1053–1068.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Parimi, S.R., Sridher Rao, J.K.On the fracture toughness of fibre reinforced concrete, Ref. [25], Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 79–92.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S.A theory for the flexural strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, March 1974, pp. 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S.Flexural strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Proc. Inst. of Civil Engin., Vol. 57, December 1974, pp. 701–707.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Naaman, A.E., Moavenzadeh, F., McGarry, F.J.Probabilistic analysis of fibre reinforced concrete. J. Engg. Mech. Div., Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engin., Vol. 100, EM 2, April 1974, pp. 397–413.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Cox, H.L.The elasticity and strength of paper and other fibrous materials, British J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 3, March 1959, pp. 72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Laws, V.The efficiency of fibrous reinforcement of brittle matrices. J. Phys., D. Appl. Phys., Vol. 4, 1971, pp. 1737–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Swamy, R.N.Aggregate-matrix interaction in concrete systems, Proc. Conf. on Structure, Solid Mechanics and Engineering Design, University of Southhampton, April 1969, Wiley-Interscience, London, December 1971, pp. 301–315.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Majumdar, A.J.The role of the interface in glass fibre reinforced cement, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, March 1974, pp. 247–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Swamy, R.N.Application of photoelastic coating techniques to the determination of internal strain distribution in cementitious materials, Proc. Fourth International Conf. on Experimental Stress Analysis, Cambridge, April 1970, pp. 58–67, Discussion, 1970, pp. 68–81.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    de Vekey, R.C., Majumdar, A.J.Determining bond trength in fibre reinforced composites. Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 20, No. 65, December 1968, pp. 229–234.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Tattersall, G.H., Urbanowicz, C.R.Bond strength in steel-fibre-reinforced concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 26, No. 87, June 1974, pp. 105–113.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    den Boer, L.J.Concrete technology and pull-out testing of steel fibre reinforced normal gravel concrete, Ref. [24], Proc. Conf. Properities and applications of fibre reinforced concrete and other fibre reinforced building materials, Uni. of Delft, September 6, 1973, Uni. of Delft, 1974, pp. 97–106.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Laws, V., Lawrence, P., Nurse, R.W.Reinforcement of brittle matrices by glass fibres. J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., Vol. 6, 1973, pp. 523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Aveston, J., Mercer, R.A., Sillwood, J.M.Fibre reinforced cements-scientific foundations for specifications. Ref. [26] Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, April 8–9, 1974, IPC science and Technology Press, April 1974, pp. 93–102.Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Williamson, G.R.Response of fibre reinforced concrete to explosive loading. Tech. Report No. 2-48 Dept. of the Army, Ohio River Division Laboratories, Corps of Engineers, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 1965, p. 74.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Mayfield B., Zelly, B.Steel fibre treatment to improve bonds. Concrete, Vol. 7, No. 3, March 1973, pp. 35–37.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Hughes, B.P.Fibre reinforcement for concrete Ref. 20. Proc. Symposium, Uni. of Birmingham, September 27, 1972, The Concrete Society, West Midlands Region. Paper 1, September 1972, p. 8.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Swamy, R.N.—Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Naaman, A.E., McGarry, F.J., Sultan, J.N.Developments in fibre-reinforcements for concrete, Technical Report R 72-28, School of Engineering, MIT, May 1972, p. 67.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Bailey, J.E., Barker, H.A., Urbanowicz, C.Alumina filament reinforced cement paste. Transactions and J of the British Ceramic Society, Vol. 71, No. 7, November 1972, pp. 203–210.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Harltey, P.High-modulus organic fibre expands the role of reinforced plastics, Design Engineering, November 1972, pp. 48–50.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Swamy, R.N., Fattuhi, N.I.Mechanics and properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Proc. First Australian Conf. on Engineering Materials. Sydney, August 1974, pp. 351–368.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Kesler, C.E.Mix design considerations, Ref. 19 Proc. Conference M-28, May 1972, Dept. of the Army, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois December 1972, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Synthetic resins in building construction, Proc. RILEM International symposium, Paris, 1976, Editions Eyrolles, 1970, p.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Mangat, P.S., Swamy, R.N.Properties of polymer modified plain and fibre reinforced concrete, Preprint, Session F Papers, First International Polymer Congress, London, May 1975, p. 4.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Swamy, R.N.Some engineering implications of design in polymer concrete, Preprint, Session G, Paper 3, First International Polymer Congress, London, May 1975, p. 11.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Solomatov, V.I.Polymer-cement concretes and polymer concretes, Polimertsementnye betony i plastbetony, 1976, English translation, AEC-tr-7 147, United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1970, p. 81.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Steele, B.R.Glass fibre-reinforced cement, Ref. 18, Proc. International Building Exhibition Conference, London. November 24, 1971, Building Research Establishment November 1971, pp. 29–36.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Majumdar, A.J., Nurse, R.W.Glass fibre reinforced cement. Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 15, 1974, pp. 107–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Takagi, J.Some properties of glass fibre reinforced concrete, Ref. 25, Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 93–111.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Swamy, R.N.The technology of steel fibre reinforced concrete for practical applications. Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs., Vol. 56, May 1974, pp. 143–159.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S.Influence of fibre-aggregate interaction on some properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete, RILEM Materials and Structures, Vol. 7, No. 41, September–October 1914, pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Edgington, J., Hannant, D.J., Williams, R.I.T.Steel fibre reinforced concrete. Building Research Establishment Current Paper CP 69/74, July 1974, p. 17.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S.Compactibility of steel fibre reinforced concrete. Concrete, Vol. 8, No. 5, May 1974, pp. 34–35.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Ritchie, A.G.B., Rahman, T.A.The effect of fibre reinforcements on the rheological properties of concrete mixes, Ref. [25], Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 29–44.Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Edgington, J., Hannant, D.J.Steel fibre reinforced conrete—the effect on fibre orientation of compaction by vibration, RILEM Materials and structures, Vol. 5, No. 25, February 1972, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    Hibbert, A.P.A method for assessing the quality and distribution of glass fibre in an opaque matrix. J. Materials Science, Vol. 9, 1974, pp. 512–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Laws, V.Discussion on fibre reinforced cements-scientific foundations for specifications, Ref. [26] Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, April 8–9, 1974, IPC science and Technology Press, April 1974, pp. 102–103.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Johnston, C. D., Coleman, R. A.Strength and deformation of steel fibre reinforced mortar in uniaxial tension, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October, 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 177–193.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, R.S.The onset of cracking and ductibility of steel fibre concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1975, pp. 37–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Allen, H.G.Stiffness and strength of two glass-fibre reinforced cement laminates, J. Composite Materials, Vol. 5, April 1971, pp. 194–207.Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Swamy, R.N. et al.,Noori, K.S.Flexural properties of steel fibre concrete. To be published.Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Briggs, A., Bowen, D.H., Kollek, J.Mechanical properties and durability of carbon-fibre reinforced cement composites, Proc. International Conf. Carbon Fibres, their place in Modern Technology, London, February 1974, The Plastics Institute, February 1974, p. 8.Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Waller, J.A.Carbon fibre cement composites, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 143–161.Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Gutt, W.Developments in fibres composites. Proc. 6th CIB Congress, Budapest. October 1974, Theme II/1, The impact of research on the Built Environment, October 1974, pp. 174–182.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Swamy, R.N., Mangat, P.S.Influence of fibre geometry on the properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, May 1974, pp. 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Snyder, J., Lankard, D.R.Factors affecting the flexural strength of steel fibrous concrete, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Proc., Vol. 69, No. 2, February 1972, pp. 96–100.Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Chen, W.F., Carson, J.L.Stress-strain properties of random wire reinforced concrete, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Proc., Vol. 68, No. 12, December 1971, pp. 933–936.Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Williamson, G.R.The effect of steel fibres on the compressive strength of concrete, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 195–207.Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    Chen, W.F., Carson, J.L.Bearing capacity of fibre reinforced concrete, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 209–220.Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Kameswara Rao, C.V.S., Swamy, R.N.Bearing strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Building Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, December 1974, pp. 263–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Batson, G., Jenkins, E., Spatney, R.Steel fibres as shear reinforced in beams, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Proc., Vol. 69, No. 10, October 1972, pp. 640–644.Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Swamy, R.N.Discussion, theories of crack propagation and fracture, Proc. Intern. Conf. The Structure of Concrete, London, September 1965, Cement and Concrete Association, pp. 212–214.Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Brown, J.H.The failure of glass fibre-reinforced notched beams in flexure, Mag. Conc. Res., Vol. 25, No. 86, March 1973, pp. 31–38.Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Shah, S.P., Rangan, B.V.Fibre reinforced concrete properties, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Proc., Vol. 68, No. 2, February 1971, pp. 126–135.Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Harris, B., Varlow, J., Ellis, C.D.The fracture behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, July 1972, pp. 447–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    Shah, S.P., Rangan, B.V.Effects of reinforcements on ductility of concrete, J. Struct. Div., Proc. Amer. Soc. Civ. Engineers, Vol. 96, No. ST 6, June 1970, pp. 1167–1184.Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Gray, B.H.Applicability of fibrous concrete for military construction, Ref. [20] Proc. Symposium, Uni. of Birmingham, September 27, 1972, The Concrete Society, West Midlands Region. Papers 1–5, September 1972, p. 12.Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Goldfein, S.Fibrous reinforcement for Portland cement, modern plastics, Vol. 42, No. 8, April 1965, pp. 156–160.Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Swamy, R.N.Fibre-reinforced concrete: mechanics, properties and applications, Indian Concrete J., Vol. 48, No. 1, Juanuary 1975, pp. 7–16.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    Batson, G., Ball, C., Bailey, L., Landers, E., Hooks, J.Flexural fatigue strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete beams, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Proc., V. 69, No. 11, November 1972, pp. 673–677.Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    Proctor, B.A.Sources of weakness in reinforcing fibres, Composites, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 1971, pp. 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    Cook, D.J., Uher, C.The thermal conductivity of fibre reinforced concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 4, No. 4, July 1974, pp. 497–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    Grimer, F.J., Ali, M.A.The strengths of cements reinforced with glass fibres, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 21, No. 66, March 1969, pp. 23–30.Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Ali, M.A., Majumdar, A.J., Rayment, D.L.Carbon fibre reinforcement of cement, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, March 1972, pp. 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    Kaden, R.A.Pumping fibrous concrete for spillway test, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 497–510.Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Majumdar, A.J.Modification of GRC properties, Ref. [26], Proc. Conference, National Physical Laboratory, London, April 8–9, 1974, IPC science and Technology Press, 1974, pp. 108–110.Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Roper, H., Stitt, D., Lawrence, P.Properties of resin coated glass fibres as reinforcement in concretes, mortars and pastes, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 221–245.Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Cahn, D.S., Phillips, J.C., Ishai, O., Aroni, S.Durability of fibre glass—Portland cement composites, J. Amer. Conc. Inst., Vol. 70, No. 3, March 1973, pp. 187–189.Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Mihail, N.Considérations sur le rôle et l'influence de l'acétate de polyvinyle dans les mortiers à base de ciment, Inst. Rech. Bât., Bucarest, September 1967, p. 8.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Perenyi, C.Polymer modified mortars, RILEM Matériaux et Constructions, No. 1, January–February 1968, pp. 13–21.Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Kubota, H., Sakane, K.A study on improvement of the properties of cement mortar by admixing polymer emulsion and synthetic fibres, Takenaka Technical Research Report, No. 3, December 1968, p. 17.Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Flajsman F., Cahn, D.S., Phillips, J.C.Polymer impregnated fibre-reinforced mortars, J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., Vol. 54, No. 3, 1971, pp. 129–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    Swamy, R.N., Lankard, D.R.Some practical applications of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Proc. Inst. Civ. Engineers, Vol. 56, August 1974, pp. 235–256.Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    West's boost pile shell production, Precast Concrete, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1974, pp. 572–575.Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Hobbs, C.Faircrete: an application of fibrous concrete, Ref. [18], Proc. International Building Exhibition Conference, London. November 24, 1971, Building Research Establishment, 1972, pp. 59–65.Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Thomas, J.A.G.Fibre-air-entrained concrete, Composites, Vol. 3, No. 2, March 1972, pp. 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    Majumdar, A.J., Tallentire, A.G.Glass fibre reinforced cement bass materials, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp. Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 351–362.Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Pecuil, T. E., Marsh, H. N.Fibreglass surface bonding, Ref. [25], Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 363–374.Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    Discussion of Ref. [116], Proc. Instn. Civ. Engineers, Vol. 58, May 1975.Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    Glowacz, K.Natryskowe obudowy wyrobisk gorniczych, Rudy I Metale Niezelazne, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1974, pp. 141–143.Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Pomeroy, C.D., Taylor, H.P.J., Brown, J.H.Concrete products for the replacement of timber for block construction in coal mines, Technical Report 42.491 Cement and Concréte Association, London, May 1974.Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Halvorsen, G.T., Kesler, C.E.Concrete for tunnel liners, Report No. FRA-ORDD 75-3, Dept., of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, August 1974, p. 104.Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    O'Leary, D.C., Dave, N.J., Saunders, J.Steel fibres in partially prestressed composite beams, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 477–495.Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Dave, N.J., O'Leary, D.C., Saunders, J.Structural use of fibrous cement in composite concrete construction, Ref. [25] Proc. International Symp., Ottawa, October 11, 1973, Publication SP-44, Amer. Concrete Inst. Detroit, 1974, pp. 511–532.Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Samarrai, M.A., Elvery, R.H.The influence of fibres upon crack development in reinforced concrete subject to uniaxial tension, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 26, No. 89, December 1974, pp. 203–211.Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Swamy, R.N., Al-Noori, K.A.Flexural behaviour of fibre concrete with conventional reinforcement. To be published.Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    Swamy, R.N., Al-Noori, K.A.Bond strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete, Concrete, Vol. 8, No. 8, August 1974, pp. 36–37.Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    Henager, C.H.A steel fibrous ductile concrete joint for seismic-resistant structures, Battelle Report, 1973, p. 22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Secrétariat de Rédaction 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. N. Swamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Structural EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldEngland

Personalised recommendations