Medical applications of television—A survey

  • B. Shackel
Article

Abstract

A review is presented of the very wide range of medical, and biological research, situations in which television is coming to have a routine application or in which pilot trials of the use of television have been made. These applications are considered under the main headings of Diagnosis, Treatment, Organisation and Welfare, Research, and Teaching. The extent of usage varies between the routine, widespread application in radiology to the proposed and somewhat debated use for surveillance as an aid to efficient hospital organization. A critical appraisal is made of the experience so far gained from the use of television in teaching, and a general opinion is tentatively expressed about the present position of television with respect to medical applications. In the appraisal three points stand out from the evidence available: that television is of undoubted value for classroom demonstration of small detail, that a weight of subjective opinion is growing to state its value in other roles, and that objective validation experiments are needed to put all the various opinions to the test. Two such experiments have been made and the results are expected fairly soon. A comprehensive list of some 90 references is appended.

Keywords

Medical Application Colour Television Television System Royal Marsden Hospital Medical Television 

Résumé

L'auteur présente un rappel d'ensemble du domaine très large des recherchet médicales et biologiques où la télévision est déjà un moyen “classique”; dans d'autres cas, on a tenté les premiers essais avec la télévision. Les diverses applications sont décrites dans les chapitres intitulés: Diagnostic, Traitement, Organisation hospitalière et assistance au patient, Recherche et Enseignement. L'emploi de la télévision s'étend de l'application routinière et générale en radiologie, jusqu'à l'application quelque peu controversée pour la surveillance en tant qu'auxiliaire efficace en organisation hospitalière. L'auteur discute des succès obtenus jusqu'ici avec la télévision comme moyen pédagogique, et il tente d'esquisser l'opinion générale au sujet de la situation actuelle de la télévision dans ses applications médicales. 3 points méritent d'être relevés: 1° la télévision est d'une valeur indiscutable pour la démonstration de fins détails en classe; 2° l'opinion subjective tend de plus en plus à reconnaître l'importance de la télévision dans d'autres domaines; 3° des expériences objectives doivent être poursuivies pour confirmer ou infirmer les diverses opinions. Deux expériences de ce genre sont déjà en cours; leurs résultats seront publiés d'ici peu. Env. 90 références bibliographiques.

Zusammenfassung

Der Autor gibt einen Überblick über die sehr weiten Bereiche medizinischer und biologischer Forschung, in welchen das Fernsehen routinemässig angewendet wird oder in denen erste Versuche mit Fernsehen durchgeführt worden sind. Diese Anwendungs-möglichkeiten werden unter den Abschnitten Diagnose, Therapie, Krankenhausorganisation und Patientenbetreuung, Forschung und Lehre abgehandelt. Die Anwendung des Fernsehens erstreckt sich vom routinemässigen, weit verbreiteten Einsatz in der Röntgenologie bis zu dem zwar schon vorgeschlagenen, aber noch etwas strittigen Einsatz zu Überwachungszwecken als Hilfsmittel in der Krankenhaus-Organisation. Die Erfahrungen, die bisher mit dem Fernsehen als pädagogischem Hilfsmittel gemacht worden sind, werden kritisch durchleuchtet. Es wird der Versuch gemacht, die allgemeine Meinung bezüglich der gegenwärtigen Stellung des Fernsehens in seinen medizinischen Anwendugsgebieten darzulegen. 3 Punkte lassen sich aus den bisherigen Unterlagen klar herausschälen: 1. Das Fernsehen ist von unbestreitbarem Wert für die Demonstration kleiner Details im Unterrichtsraum; 2. Die subjektive Meinung neigt immer mehr dazu, den Wert des Fernsehens auch in anderen Bereichen anzuerkennen; 3. Durch objektive Experimente müssen die verschiedenen Meinungen Klarheit gewinnen. Zwei Experimente dieser Art sind schon durchgeführt worden, ihre Ergebnisse werden in Kürze vorliegen. Etwa 90 Literaturstellen.

Резюме

Дается обозрение самых разнообразных случаев в области медицинских и биологических изысканий, где телевидение начинают теперь применять регулярным образом, или же случаев, когда были сделаны опытные испытания в при-менении телевидения. Такие применения рассматриваются под заголовками «Диагноз», «Лечение», «Организация и бытовое обслуживание» и «Научное иссле-дование и обучение». Степень применения разнится от широкого рутинного прило-жения в рентгенологии до предвидящегося, но еще не вполне уточненного, приме-нения в госпиталях, в качестве вспомогательного средства в производстве наблю-дений. Дается критическая оценка накопленного по сей день опыта в связи с применением телевидения в педагогике и высказывается принципиальное мнение о положении, занимаемом сейчас телевидением, с точки зрения его использования в медицине. При оценке выявились три фактора, основанных на очевидных данных, а именно: 1. телевидение имеет несомненно ценное значение в школах для иллюстрации небольших деталей, 2. все больше распространяется мнение, утвер-ждающее, что телевидение может быть ценным приобретением и в других ролях, и 3. для испытания всех разногласных мнений необходимо осуществить экспери-менты, которые подверглись бы объективному суждению и признанию. Было сделано два таких эксперимента и результаты таковых ожидаются в скором времени. Прилагается коллективный список, содержащий около 90 справок.

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Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Limited 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Shackel
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychological Research LaboratoryEMI Electronics Ltd.HayesUK

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