Advertisement

Environmental Management

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 675–684 | Cite as

Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: Role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants

  • A. U. Mallik
Profile

Abstract

Fire and logging in nutrient-poor temperate forests with certain ericaceous understory plants may convert the forests into heaths. The process of disturbance-induced heath formation is documented by using examples ofCalluna in western Europe,Kalmia in Newfoundland, andGaultheria (salal) in coastal British Columbia. In a cool, temperate climate, rapid vegetative growth ofCalluna, Kalmia, and salal following disturbance results in increasing organic accumulation (paludification), nutrient sequestration, soil acidification, and allelochemicals. These are thought to be the main reasons to conifer regeneration failure in disturbed habitats.

If continuation in forest is a land-use objective, then temperate forests with an ericaceous understory should not be logged unless effective silvicultural methods are devised to control the ericaceous plants and restore forest regeneration. Preharvest vegetation control may be considered as an option. Failure to control the understory plants may lead to a long-term vegetation shift, from forest to heathland, particularly in nutrient-poor sites. Successful methods of controllingKalmia andGaultheria, however, have yet to be developed. While theKalmia- andGaultheria- dominated heathlands are undesirable in Canada and the Pacific Northwest, a wide range ofCalluna heathlands of western Europe are being conserved as natural and seminatural vegetation.

Key Words

Disturbance Fire Logging Calluna Kalmia Gaultheria Heathland Conifers Allelopathy Regeneration failure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Aerts, R., and F. Berendse. 1988. The effect of increased nutrient availability on vegetation dynamics in wet healthlands.Vegetatio 76:63–69.Google Scholar
  2. Aerts, R., F. Berendse, N. M. Klerk, and C. Bakker. 1990. Competition in heathland along an experimental gradient of nutrient availability.Oikos 57:310–318.Google Scholar
  3. Ballester, A., J. M. Albo, and E. Vieitez. 1977. The allelopathic potential ofErica scoparia L.Oecologia 30:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barclay-Estrup, P. 1970. The description and interpretation of cyclical processes in a heath community. II Changes in biomass and shoot production during theCalluna cycle.Journal of Ecology 58:243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barclay-Estrup, P. 1971. The description and interpretation of cyclical processes in a heath community. III Microclimate in relation to theCalluna cycle.Journal of Ecology 59:143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barclay-Estrup, P., and C. H. Gimingham. 1969. The description and interpretation of cyclical processes in a heath community. I. Vegetational change in relation to theCalluna cycle.Journal of Ecology 57:737–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barclay-Estrup, P., and C. H. Gimingham. 1994. Seed-shedding in a Scottish heath community.Journal of Vegetation Science 5:197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beijerinck, W. 1940.Calluna: A monograph on the Scotch heather. Verhandlungen Akazendia Wetlanden Amsterdam (3rd section) 38:1–180.Google Scholar
  9. Bunnell, F. L. 1990. Reproduction of salal (Gaultheria shallon) under forest canopy.Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 20:91–100.Google Scholar
  10. Calder, J. A., and R. L. Taylor. 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands (I). Canada Department of Agriculture, Monograph, No. 4(1), Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  11. Calmes, M. A., and J. C. Zasada. 1982. Some reproductive traits of four shrubs in the black spruce forest types of Alaska.Canadian Field Naturalist 96:35–40.Google Scholar
  12. Candy, R. H. 1951. Reproduction on cutover and burnedover land in Canada. Canada Department of Research & Development, Forest Research Division, Silviculture Research Note 92, 224 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Carballeira, A. 1980. Phenolic inhibitors inErica australis L. associated soil.Journal of Chemical Ecology 6:593–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Damman, A. W. H. 1971. Effect of vegetation change on the fertility of a Newfoundland forest site.Ecological Monograph 41:253–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Damman, A. W. H. 1975. Permanent changes in the chronosequence of a boreal forest habitat. Pages 499–515in W. Schmidt (ed.), Sukessionsforschung Cramer, Vanduz, Germany.Google Scholar
  16. del Moral, Ŕ. 1972. On the variability of chlorogenic acid concentration.Oecologia 9:289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Montigny, I. 1992. An investigation into the factors contributing to the growth-check of conifer regeneration on northern Vancouver island. PhD thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  18. de Montigny, L., L. Lowe, and C. Preston. 1991. Evidence for allelopathy by salal in conifer plantations of northern Vancouver Island. SCHIRP Research Abstracts, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  19. de Smidt, T. J., and P. J. van Ree. 1992. The loss of cryptograms in Dutch heathland as an effect of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen. Pages 294–296in B. Clement, (ed.), Proceedings of the fourth international heathland workshop, 30 August–5 September 1992, Université de Renne, Bretagne, France.Google Scholar
  20. Dimbleby, G. W. 1962. The development of British heathlands and their soils.Oxford Forestry Memoris 23:1–121.Google Scholar
  21. Dimbleby, G. W. 1965. Post-glacial changes in soil profiles.Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 161:355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durno, S. E. 1957. Certain aspects of vegetational history in north-east Scotland. ScottishGeographic Magazine 73:176–184.Google Scholar
  23. Durno, S. E. 1958. Pollen analysis of peat deposits in eastern Sutherland and Caithness.Scottish Geographic Magazine 74:127–135.Google Scholar
  24. Durno, S. E. 1965. Pollen analytical evidence of ‘landnam’ from two Scottish sites.Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 40:13–19.Google Scholar
  25. Elenberg, H. 1985. Veranderunger der Flora Mittelenropas unter dem Einfluss van Dungung und immissionen. Schweizerische Zeitschriftfuer Forstwesen 136:19–39.Google Scholar
  26. Gimingham, C. H. 1972. Ecology of heathlands. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  27. Gimingham, C. H. 1975. An introduction to heathland ecology. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  28. Gimingham, C. H. 1981. Conservation: European heathlands.In R. L. Specht (ed.), Heathlands and related shrublands of the world, B. Analytical studies. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  29. Gimingham, C. H. 1992. Managing lowland heath for conservation: Some dilemmas. Page 292in B. Clement, (ed.), Proceedings of the fourth international heathland workshop, 30 August–5 September 1992, Université de Renne, Bretagne, France.Google Scholar
  30. Gimingham, C. H., and J. T. de Smidt. 1983. Heaths as natural and semi-natural vegetation. Pages 185–189in M. J. A. Werger and I. Ikusima (eds.), Man's impact on vegetation. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  31. Gimingham, C. H., S. B. Chapman, and N. R. Webb. 1979. European heathlands. Pages 365–413in R. L. Specht (ed.), Heathlands and related shrublands. A. Descriptive studies. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  32. Gimingham, C. H., R. Hobbs, and A. U. Mallik. 1981. Community dynamics in relation to management of heathland vegetation in Scotland.Vegetatio 46:149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glass, A. D. M. 1973. Influence of phenolic acids on ion uptake. III. Inhibition of phosphate uptake.Plant Physiology 51:1037–1041.Google Scholar
  34. Glass, A. D. M., and B. A. Bohm. 1971. The uptake of simple phenols by barley roots.Planta 100:93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Godwin, H. 1956. History of the British flora. Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  36. Grubb, P. J., H. E. Green, and R. C. J. Merrifield, 1969. The ecology of chalk heath: Its relvance to the calcicole-calcifuge and soil acidification problems.Journal of Ecology 57:175–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haeussler, S., D. Coates, and J. Matter. 1990. Autecology of common plants in British Columbia: A literature review. Forestry Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of Forests. FRDA Rep. No. 158:96–102.Google Scholar
  38. Hall, A. B., U. Blum, and R. C. Fites. 1982. Stress modification of allelopathy ofHelianthus annuus L. debris on seed germination.American Journal of Botany 69:776–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hall, I. V., L. P. Jackson, and C. P. Everett. 1973. The biology of Canadian weeds. I.Kalmia angustifolia L.Canadian Journal of Plant Science 53:865–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall, J. P. 1986. Afforestation of heathlands in eastern Newfoundland. Canadian Forestry Service Information Report N-X-253. Newfoundland Forestry Centre, 25 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Handley, W. R. C. 1963. Mycorrhizal associations and Calluna heathland afforestation. Forestry Commission Bulletin No. 36. H.M.S.O. London, UK.Google Scholar
  42. Heil, G. W., and W. H. Diemont 1983. Raised nutrient levels change heathland into grassland.Vegetatio 53:113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hobbs, R. J. 1984. Possible chemical interactions among heathland plants.Oikos 43:23–29.Google Scholar
  44. Hobbs, R. J., and C. H. Gimingham. 1987. Vegetation, fire, and herbivore interactions in hethland.Advances in Ecological Research 16:87–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huffuman, D. W., J. C. Tapeiner II, and J. C. Zasada, 1994. Regeneration of salal in central coast range forests of Oregon.Canadian Journal of Botany 72:39–51.Google Scholar
  46. Iversen, J. 1941. Landnam i danmarks stenalder.Danmarks Geologiske Undersoegelse HR 66:1–67.Google Scholar
  47. Iversen, J. 1949. The influence of prehistoric man on soil fertility.Danmarks Geologiske Undersoegelse IVR 6:1–25.Google Scholar
  48. Jalal, M. A. F., and D. J. Read. 1983a. The organic acid composition ofCalluna heathland soil with special reference to phyto- and fungitoxicity. I. Isolation and identification of organic acids.Plant and Soil 70:257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jalal, M. A. F., and D. J. Read. 1983b. The organic acid composition ofCalluna heathland soil with special reference to phyto- and fungitoxicity. II. Monthly quantitative determination of the organic acid content ofCalluna and spruce dominated soils.Plant and Soil 70:273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jaynes, R. A. 1975. The laurel book. Hafner Press, New York, 180 pp.Google Scholar
  51. Jonassen, H. 1950. Recent pollen sedimentation and jutland heath diagrams.Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 13:1–168.Google Scholar
  52. Jones, G. W., and F. L. Bunnell. 1984. Response of black-tailed deer to winters of different severity on northern Vancouver Island. Pages 385–396in W. R. Meehan, T. R. Merrell, Jr., and T. A. Hanley (eds.), Proceedings of a symposium on fish and wildlife relationships in old-growth forests, 12–15 April 1982, Juneau, American Institute of Fishery Research Biologist, Morchead City, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  53. Khoon, G. W., and C. H. Gimingham. 1984. Birch regeneration in heath vegetation.Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 85B:73–81.Google Scholar
  54. Kobza, N. J., and F. A. Einhellig. 1987. The effects of ferulic acid on the mineral nutrition of grain soeghum.Plant and Soil 98:99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kumi, J. 1984. Effects of repeated fertilization and a straw application to the organic layers under jack pine and seedling response. MSc thesis. Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 111 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Lehman, R. H., and E. L. Rice. 1972. Effects of deficiency of nitrogen, potassium and sulfur on chlorogenic acid and scopoletin in sunflower.American Midland Naturalist 87:71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mallik, A. U. 1987. Allelopathic potential ofKalmia angustifolia to black spruce (Picea mariana).Forest Ecology and Management 20:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mallik, A. U. 1988. Ecological comparison ofKalmia heath of Newfoundland andCalluna heath of Scotland with special reference to afforestation. International Conference on Lowland Heaths, 4–7 May, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  59. Mallik, A. U. 1990. Allelopathy and the competitive advantage ofKalmia angustifolia over black spruce. Page 203in B. D. Titus, M. B. Lavigne, P. F. Newton, and W. J. Meades (eds.) Silvics and ecology of boreal spruces 1989. IUFRO Working Party, 51,05-12 Symposium Proceedings, Newfoundland, 12–17 August 1989. Forestry Canada Information Report N-X-271Google Scholar
  60. Mallik, A. U. 1991. Cutting, burning and mulching to controlKalmia: Results of a greenhouse experiment.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 67 (5):1309–1316.Google Scholar
  61. Mallik, A. U. 1992. Possible role of allelopathy in growth inhibition of softwood seedlings in Newfoundland. Pages 321–341in S. J. H. Rizvi and V. Rizvi (eds.), Allelopathy: Basic and applied aspects. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  62. Mallik, A. U. 1993. Ecology of a forest weed of Newfoundland: Vegetative regeneration strategy ofKalmia angustifolia.Canadian Journal of Botany 71:161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mallik, A. U. 1994. Autecological response ofKalmia angustifolia to forest types and disturbance rigimes.Forest Ecology and Management 65:231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mallik, A. U., and C. H. Gimingham. 1983. Regeneration of heathland plants following burning.Vegetatio 53:45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mallik, A. U., and C. H. Gimingham. 1985. Ecological effects of heather burning. II. Effects on seed germination and vegetative regeneration.Journal of Ecology 73:633–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mallik, A. U., and B. A. Roberts. 1994. Natural regeneration of red pine on burned and unburned sites in Newfoundland.Journal of Vegetation Science 5:179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mallik, A. U., and H. Zhu. 1995. Overcoming allelopathic growth inhibition by mycorrhizal inoculation. Pages 39–57in Inderjit, K. M. M. Dakshini, and F. A. Einhellig (eds.), Allelopathy: Organisms, processes and applications American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  68. Mallik, A. U., R. J. Hobbs, and C. J. Legg. 1984. Seed dynamics inCalluna-Arctostaphylos heath in N. E. Scotland.Journal of Ecology 72:855–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mallik, A. U., R. J. Hobbs, and A. A. Rahman 1986. Seed bed substrates and revegetation in Calluna heathlands following burningJournal of Environmental Management 27:379–397.Google Scholar
  70. mcGee, A. B. 1988. Effects of prescribed burning on vegetation and natural tree regeneration in mature cedar-hemlock forests in the Pacific Rim National Park. BSF thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  71. McVean, D. N., and D. A. Ratcliffe. 1962. Plant communities of the Scottish Highlands. London.Google Scholar
  72. Meades, W. J. 1983. The origin and successional status of anthropogenic dwarf shrub heath in Newfoundland.Advances in Space Research 2(8):97–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meades, W. J. 1986. Successional status of ericaceous dwarfshrub heath in eastern Newfoundland. PhD thesis. University of Connecticut. Storrs.Google Scholar
  74. Meades, W. J., and L. Moores. 1989. Forest site classification manual. Forest Resource Development Agreement Report No. 003. Canadian Forest Service. St. John's Newfoundland. p. 235.Google Scholar
  75. Messier, C. 1992. Effects of neural shade and growing media on growth, biomass allocation, and competitive ability ofGaultheria shallon.Canadian Journal of Botany 70:2271–2276.Google Scholar
  76. Messier, C., and J. P. Kimmins. 1991. Above-ground and below-ground vegetation recovery in recently clearcut and burned sites dominated byGaultheria shallon in coastal British Columbia.Forest Ecology and Management 46:275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Messier, C., T. Honer, and J. P. Kimmins. 1989. Photosynthetic photon flux densities, red:far-red ratio and minimum light requirement for survival ofGaultheria shallon in western red ceder-western hemlock stands in coastal British Columbia.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:1470–1477.Google Scholar
  78. Miles, J. 1974a. Experimental establishment of new species from seed in Callunetum in north-east Scotland.Journal of Ecology 62:527–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miles, J. 1974b. Effects of experimental interference with stand structure on establishment of seedlings in Callunetum.Journal of Ecology 62:675–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miles, J. 1975. Performance after six growing seasons of new species established from seed in Callunetum in north-east Scotland.Journal of Ecology 63:891–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miles, J. 1981a. Problems in heathland and grassland dynamics.Vegetatio 46:61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miles, J. 1981b. Effect of birch on moorlands. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  83. Miles, J., and J. W. Kinnard. 1979. The establishment and regeneration of birch, juniper, and Scots pine in the Scottish highlands.Scottish Forestry 33:102–117.Google Scholar
  84. Miller, G. R., and J. Miles. 1969. Productivity and management of heather. Pages 31–49.in Grouse research in Scotland, 13th Progress Report. Nature Conservancy, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  85. Miller, G. R., and A. Watson. 1978. Heather productivity and its relevance to the regulation of red grouse populations. Pages 277–285in D. W. Heal and D. F. Parkins (eds.), Production ecology of some British moors and montane grasslands. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  86. Miller, G. R., D. Jenkins, and A. Watson. 1966. Heather performance and red grouse populations. I. Visual estimates of heather performance.Journal of Applied Ecology 3:313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moss, R. 1969. A comparison of red grouse (Lagopus L.scoticus) stocks with the production and nutritive value of heather (Calluna vulgaris).Journal of Animal Ecology 38:103–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moss, R., G. R. Miller, and S. E. Allen. 1972. The selection of heather by captive red grouse in relation to the age of the plant.Journal of Applied Ecology 9:771–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nicholson, I. A. 1964. The influence of management practices on the present day vegetational pattern, and development trends. Symposium on land use in the Scottish highlands.Advancement of Science, London 21:158–163.Google Scholar
  90. Oden, P. C., P. O. Brandtberg, R. Anderson, R. Gref, O. Zackrisson and M. C. Nilsson. 1992. Isolation and characterization of germination inhibitor from leaves ofEmpetrum hermaphorditum (Hagerup.).Scandinavian Journal of Forest Science 7:497–502.Google Scholar
  91. Page, G. 1970. The development ofKalmia angustifolia on a black spruce cutover in central Newfoundland. Forest Research Laboratory. St. John's, Newfoundland, Internal Report N-27, 7 pp.Google Scholar
  92. Peterson, E. B. 1965. Inhibition of black spruce primary roots by a water soluble substance inKalmia angustifolia.Forest Science 11 (4):473–479.Google Scholar
  93. Prescott, C. E., L. P. Coward, G. F. Weetman and S. P. Gessel. 1993. Effect of repeated nitrogen fertilization on the ericaceous shrub, salal (Gaultheria shallon) in two Douglas-fir forests.Forest Ecology and Management 61:45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Putnam, A. R. 1985 Weed allelopathy. Pages 132–155in S. O. Duke (ed.) Weed physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  95. Rice, E. L. 1965. Inhibition of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen-fixing bacteria by seed plants. II. Characterization and identification of inhibitors.Physiologia Plantarum 18:255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rice, E. L. 1984. Allelopathy. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  97. Richardson, J. 1975. Regeneration after disturbance in Newfoundland forests: Patterns, problems, and prescriptions. Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service Information Report, N-X-130, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  98. Richardson, J., and J. P. Hall, 1973a. Natural regeneration after disturbance in the forest of central Newfoundland Canada Department of Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report N-X-86, 63 pp.Google Scholar
  99. Richardson, J., and J. P. Hall, 1973b. Natural regeneration after disturbance in the forests of eastern Newfoundland. Canada Department of Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report N-X-90, 46 pp.Google Scholar
  100. Robinson, R. K. 1971. Importance of soil toxicity in relation to the stability of plant communities. Pages 105–113in E. Duffey, and A. S. Watts (eds.), The scientific management of animal and plant communities for conservation. British Ecological Society Symposium 11, Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  101. Robinson, R. K. 1972. The production by roots ofCalluna vulgaris of a factor inhibitory to growth of some mycorrhizal fungi.Journal of Ecology 60:219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rowe, J. S., and G. W. Scotter. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest.Quarterary Research 3:444–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sabhasri, S. 1961. An ecological study of salal (Gaultheria shallon). PhD thesis. University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  104. Sabhasri, S., and W. K. Ferrell. 1960. Invasion of brush species into small openings in the Douglas fir forests of the Willamette Foothills.Northwest Science 34:77–80.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, N. J. 1991. Sun and shade leaves: Clues to low salal (Gautheria shallon) responds to overstory density.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21:300–305.Google Scholar
  106. Stowe, L. G., and A. Osborn. 1980. The influence of nitrogen and phosphorus levels of phytotoxicity of phenolic compounds.Canadian Journal of Botany 58:1149–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tang, C. S., W. F. Cai, K. Kohl and R. K. Nishimoto. 1995. Plant stress and allelopathy. Pages 142–157 in Inderjit, K. M. M. Dakshini and F. A. Einhellig (eds.), Allelopathy: Organisms, processes and applications. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  108. Thompson, I. D., and A. U. Mallik. 1989. Moose browsing and allelopathic effects ofKalmia angustifolia on balsam fir regeneration in central Newfoundland.Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19(4):524–526.Google Scholar
  109. Vales, D. J. 1986. Functional relationships between salal understory and forest overstory. MSc thesis. Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  110. Van Breemen, N. and van Dijk, H. F. G. 1988. Ecosystem effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the Netherlands.Environmental Pollution 54:249–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vogt, K. A., D. J. Vogt, E. E. Moore, B. A. Fatugan, M. R. Redlin and R. L. Edmonds. 1987. Conifer and angiosperm fineroot biomass in relation to stand age and site productivity in Douglas-fir forests.Journal of Ecology 75:857–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Weatherell, J. 1953. The checking of forest trees by heather.Forestry 26(1):37–41.Google Scholar
  113. Weetman, G. F., R. Fournier, and J. Barker. 1990. Post-burn nitrogen and phosphorus availability of deep humus soils in coastal British Columbia cedar/hemlock forests and the use of fertilization and salal eradication to restore productivity. Proceedings of North American Forest Soils Conference, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  114. Zhu, H. and A. U. Mallik. 1994. Interactions betweenKalmia and black spruce: Isolation and identification of allelopathic compounds.Journal of Chemical Ecology 20:407–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. U. Mallik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

Personalised recommendations