Journal of Comparative Physiology B

, Volume 154, Issue 3, pp 281–286 | Cite as

Locust haemolymph lipoproteins visualised in the electron microscope

  • C. H. Wheeler
  • J. E. Mundy
  • G. J. Goldsworthy


In matureLocusta, the haemolymph lipoproteins change both in quality and quantity according to the physiological state of the animal. In resting locusts the majority of lipid in the haemolymph is carried by lipoprotein Ayellow, but during flight or after adipokinetic hormone injection, Ayellow joins together with extra diacylglycerols from the fat body and non-lipid carrying CL-proteins to form another lipoprotein, A+. In this study partially purified Ayellow and A+ lipoproteins have been visualised by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining or shadowing. Both Ayellow and A+ lipoproteins are discrete particulate structures but they differ markedly in size; Ayellow particles are 9–16 nm in diameter while those of A+ are mostly in the range 20–50 nm. Large lipoprotein particles of the A+ type have not been described previously in insect haemolymph but, interestingly, the locust A+ particles do resemble most closely the low density lipoprotein particles described in human serum by Forte and Nichols (1972).


Ammonium Sulphate Negative Staining Flight Muscle Lipid Loading Ammonium Sulphate Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beenakkers AMTh, Van der Horst DJ, Van Marrewijk WJA (1981) Role of lipids in energy metabolism. In: Downer RGH (ed) Energy metabolism in insects. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York London, pp 53–100Google Scholar
  2. Chino H, Kitazawa K (1981) Diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein of haemolymph of the locust and some insects. J Lipid Res 22:1042–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chino H, Murakami S, Harashima K (1969) Diglyceride-carrying lipoproteins in insect haemolymph: isolation, purification and properties. Biochim Biophys Acta 176:1–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Downer RGH (1978) Functional role of lipids in insects. In: Rockstein M (ed) Biochemistry of insects. Academic Press, New York, pp 57–92Google Scholar
  5. Eisenberg S, Levy RI (1975) Lipoprotein metabolism. Adv Lipid Res 13:1–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fainaru M, Glangeaud MC, Eisenberg S (1975) Radioimmunoassay of human high density lipoprotein apoprotein A-1. Biochim Biophys Acta 386:432–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Forte T, Nichols AV (1972) Application of electron microscopy to plasma lipoprotein structure. Adv Lipid Res 10:1–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gilbert LI, Chino H (1974) Transport of lipids in insects. J Lipid Res 15:439–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Goldsworthy GJ, Mordue W, Guthkelch J (1972) Studies on insect adipokinetic hormones. Gen Comp Endocrinol 18:545–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mwangi RW, Goldsworthy GJ (1977) Diglyceride-transporting lipoproteins inLocusta. J Comp Physiol 114:177–190Google Scholar
  11. Mwangi RW, Goldsworthy GJ (1978) Studies in diglyceridetransporting lipoproteins inLocusta. In: Gaillard PJ, Boer HH (eds) Comparative endocrinology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 459–463Google Scholar
  12. Mwangi RW, Goldsworthy GJ (1981) Diacylglycerol-transporting lipoproteins and flight inLocusta. J Insect Physiol 27:47–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nilsson-Ehle P, Garfinkel AS, Schotz MC (1980) Lipolytic enzymes and plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Annu Rev Biochem 49:667–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pattnaik NM, Mundall EC, Trambusti BG, Law JH, Kézdy FJ (1979) Isolation and characterization of a larval lipoprotein from the haemolymph ofManduca sexta. Comp Biochem Physiol 63B:469–476Google Scholar
  15. Robinson NL, Goldsworthy GJ (1977) Adipokinetic hormone and the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a working flight muscle preparation. J Insect Physiol 23:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Van der Horst DJ, Van Doorn JM, Beenakkers AMTh (1979) Effects of the adipokinetic hormone on the release and turnover of haemolymph diglycerides and on the formation of the diglyceride transporting system during locust flight. Insect Biochem 9:627–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Van der Horst DJ, Van Doorn JM, De Keijzer AM, Beenakkers AMTh (1981) Interconversions of diacylglycerol-transporting lipoproteins in the haemolymph ofLocusta. Insect Biochem 11:717–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Weintraub H, Tietz A (1973) Triglyceride digestion and absorption in the locust,Locusta migratoria. Biochim Biophys Acta 306:31–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Weintraub H, Tietz A (1978) Lipid absorption by isolated intestinal preparations. Insect Biochem 8:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wheeler CH, Goldsworthy GJ (1983a) Qualitative and quantitative changes inLocusta haemolymph proteins and lipoproteins during ageing and adipokinetic hormone action. J Insect Physiol 29:339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wheeler CH, Goldsworthy GJ (1983b) Protein lipoprotein interactions in the haemolymph ofLocusta during the action of adipokinetic hormone: The role of Cl-proteins. J Insect Physiol 29:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wyatt GR, Pan ML (1978) Insect plasma proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 47:779–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. H. Wheeler
    • 1
  • J. E. Mundy
    • 1
  • G. J. Goldsworthy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of HullNorth HumbersideEngland

Personalised recommendations