The Visual Computer

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 419–428 | Cite as

Feature matching and affine transformation for 2D cell animation

  • Ming Xie
Original Articles


This paper presents an application for feature matching and affine transformation in computer graphics. The study case considered is 2D cell animation, which is still a labor-intensive process in current cartoon film production. One key problem in automating 2D cell animation in inbetween frame generation. The objective of our work is to investigate how to automatically generate inbetweening from pairs of hand-drawn 2D key frames. Our technique first establishes the correspondence of feature points and then estimates the affine transformation between each pair of 2D key frames. The inbetween frames are then automatically generated by interpolation.

Key words

Inbetweening Key frames (2D) Cell animation, 2D Feature matching Affine transform 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bachelder IA, Ullman S (1992) Contour matching using local affine transformation. IEEE Proceedings of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Champaign, Ill, 798–801Google Scholar
  2. Badler N (1987) Articulated figure animation IEEE Comput Graph Appl 7: 10–11Google Scholar
  3. Bruderlin A, Calvert TW (1989) Goal-directed, dynamic animation of human waling. ACM Comput Graph 23: 233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catmull E (1978) The problems of computer assisted animation. ACM Comput Graph 12:348–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hahn JK (1985) Realistic animation of rigid bodies. ACM Comput Graph 22:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hilditch CJ (1969) Linear skeletons from square cupboards. Machine Intell 4: 403–420Google Scholar
  7. Isaacs PM, Cohen MF (1988) Mixed methods for complex kinematic constraints in dynamic figure animation. Visual Comput 4: 296–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Luo Y, Lopez FJP, Pipaon JJV (1992) An automatic rotoscopy system for human motion based on a biomechanic graphical model. Comput Graph 16: 355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Van Overveld CWAM (1990) A technique for motion specification in computer animation. Visual Comput 6: 106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Reeves W (1981) Inbetweening for computer animation using moving point constraints. ACM Comput Graph 15: 263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sederberg TW, Greenwood E (1992) A physically based approach to 2D shape blending. ACM Comput Graph 26: 25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tost D, Pueyo X (1988) Human body animation: a survey. Visual Computer 3: 254–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Weng J, Ahuja N, Huang TS (1992) Matching two perspective views. IEEE Trans Patt Anal Machine Intell 14: 806–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wilhelms J, Moore M, Skinner R (1988) Dynamic animation: interaction and control. Visual Computer 4: 283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zelter D (1985) Towards an integrated view of 3D computer animation. Visual Comput 1: 249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming Xie
    • 1
  1. 1.SingaporeNanyang Technological University

Personalised recommendations