, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 433–439 | Cite as

Effects of vegetation change and soil disturbance on ectomycorrhizas ofBetula platyphylla var.japonica: A test using seedlings planted in soils taken from various sites

  • Yasushi Hashimoto
  • Mitsuro Hyakumachi
Original Papers


The occurrence and character of different types of ectomycorrhizas of birch seedlings were investigated in soils from three naturally regenerating birch stands: a forest site, a clear-cut site, and a site recently disturbed by plowing. Birch grown in soil from an evergreen broad-leaved forest without birch was also studied. The rate of ectomycorrhizal formation in the soil from the evergreen broad-leaved forest was lower than that in the soil from the other three sites. The ectomycorrhizal formation of seedlings grown in soil from the clear-cut and plowed sites were the same as or higher than that in soil from the birch forest site. The largest number of ectomycorrhizal types were formed in soil from the birch forest site. In the soil from the plowed site, only one type of ectomycorrhiza was formed, and it was different from the dominant type formed in soils from the birch forest site and the clear-cut site. The results of this investigation showed that equal levels of ectomycorrhizas were formed in soils from the different birch stands, but the types formed were different among those sites. It is likely that the different ectomycorrhizal fungi were better adapted to the soil conditions at each of those sites.

Key Words

birch clear-cutting disturbance ectomycorrhizas morphological type 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Abuzinadah, R. A. and Read, D. J. 1989. Carbon transfer associated with assimilation of organic nitrogen sources by silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.). Trees3: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agerer, R. 1994. Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn-Verlag, Schwabisch Grnünd.Google Scholar
  3. Browning, M. H. R. and Whitney, R. D. 1993. Infection of containerized jack pine and black spruce byLaccaria species andThelephora terrestris and seedling survival and growth after outplanting. Can. J. For. Res.23: 330–333.Google Scholar
  4. Christy, E. J., Sollins, P. and Trappe, J. M. 1982. First-year survival ofTsuga heterophylla without mycorrhizae and subsequent ectomycorrhizal development on decaying logs and mineral soil. Can. J. Bot.60: 1601–1605.Google Scholar
  5. Cline, M. L. and Reid, C. P. P. 1982. Seed source and mycorrhizal fungus effects on growth of containerizedPinus contorta andPinus ponderosa seedlings. Forest Sci.28: 237–250.Google Scholar
  6. Dighton, J. and Mason, P. A. 1985. Mycorrhizal dynamics during forest tree development, pp. 117–139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Dixon, R. K., Garrett, H. E., Cox, G. S., Marx, D. H. and Sander, I. L. 1984. Inoculation of threeQuercus species with eleven isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. I. Inoculation success and seedling growth relationships. Forest Sci.30: 364–372.Google Scholar
  8. Frankland, J. C. and Harrison, A. F. 1985. Mycorrhizal infection ofBetula pendula andAcer pseudoplatanus: relationships with seedling growth and soil factors. New Phytol.101: 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gardes, M. and Bruns, T. D. 1996. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in aPinus muricata forest: above- and below-ground views. Can. J. Bot.74: 1572–1583.Google Scholar
  10. Harley, J. L. and Smith, S. E. 1983. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  11. Harvey, A. E., Larsen, M. J. and Jurgensen, M. F. 1979. Comparative distribution of ectomycorrhizae in soils of three Western Montana forest habitat types. Forest Sci.25: 350–358.Google Scholar
  12. Harvey, A. E., Larsen, M. J. and Jurgensen, M. F. 1980. Partial cut harvesting and ectomycorrhizae: early effects in Douglas-fir-larch forest of western Montana. Can. J. For. Res.10: 436–440.Google Scholar
  13. Imazeki, R. and Hongo T. 1987. Colored illustration of mushrooms of Japan, I. Hoikusha, Osaka. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  14. Imazeki R. and Hongo T. 1987. Colored illustration of mushrooms of Japan, II. Hoikusha, Osaka. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  15. Ingleby, K., Mason, P. A., Last, F. T. and Fleming, L. V. 1990. Identification of ectomycorrhizas. HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  16. Last, F. T., Dighton, J. and Mason, P. A. 1987. Succession of sheathing mycorrhizal fungi. Trees2: 157–161.Google Scholar
  17. MacFall, J., Slack, S. A. and Iyer, J. 1991. Effects ofHebeloma arenosa and phosphorus fertility on root acid phosphatase activity of red pine (Pinus resinosa) seedlings. Can. J. Bot.69: 380–383.Google Scholar
  18. Marx, D. H. 1969. The influence of ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections. I. Antagonism of mycorrhizal fungi to root pathogenic fungi and soil bacteria. Phytopathology59: 153–163.Google Scholar
  19. Newton, A. C. 1991. Mineral nutrition and mycorrhizal infection of seedling oak and birch III. Epidemiological aspects of ectomycorrhizal infection, and the relationship to seedling growth. New Phytol.117: 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newton, A. C. and Pigott, C. D. 1991. Mineral nutrition and mycorrhizal infection of seedling oak and birch I. Nutrient uptake and the development of mycorrhizal infection during seedling establishment. New Phytol.117: 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ogawa, M. 1977. Ecology of higher fungi inTsuga diversifolia andBetula ermani-Abies mariesii forests of subalpine zone. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan18: 1–19.Google Scholar
  22. Perry, D. A., Mayer, M. M., Egeland, D., Rose, S. L. and Pilz, D. 1982. Seedling growth and mycorrhizal formation in clear-cut and adjacent, undisturbed soils in Montana: A green-house bioassay. For. Ecol. Manage.4: 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pigott, C. D. 1982. Fine structure of mycorrhiza formed byCenococcum geophilum FR. onTilia cordata Mill. New Phytol.92: 501–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pilz, D. P. and Perry, D. A. 1984. Impact of clearcutting and slash burning on ectomycorrhizal associations of Douglas-fir seedlings. Can. J. For. Res.14: 94–100.Google Scholar
  25. Schoenberger, M. M. and Perry, D. A. 1982. The effect of soil disturbance on growth and ectomycorrhizae of Douglas-fir and western hemlock seedlings: a greenhouse bioassay. Can. J. For. Res.12: 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tennant, D. 1975. A test of a modified line intersect method of estimating root length. J. Ecol.63: 995–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tyminska, A. and Tacon, F. L. 1986. Effect of three ectomycorrhizal fungi on growth and phosphorus uptake ofPinus silvestris seedlings at increasing phosphorus levels. Can. J. Bot.64: 2753–2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vogt, K. A., Edmonds, R. L., Grier, C. C. and Piper, S. R. 1980. Seasonal changes in mycorrhizal and fibrous-textured root biomass in 23- and 180-year-old Pacific silver fir stands in western Washington. Can. J. For. Res.10: 523–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mycological Society of Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasushi Hashimoto
    • 1
  • Mitsuro Hyakumachi
    • 2
  1. 1.United Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceGifu UniversityGifu CityJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Genetic EcologyTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations