Liverpool Law Review

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 97–106 | Cite as

Buggery and rape after the criminal justice and public order act 1994

  • D. Selfe
Article
  • 20 Downloads

Keywords

Sexual Intercourse Anal Intercourse Sexual Offence Vaginal Intercourse Life Imprisonment 

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References

  1. 1.
    See, for example,Wiseman (1718) Fort. 91;Reekspear (1832) 1 Mood. 342;Bourne (1952) 36 Cr..App.R. 125.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    [1986]Crim.L.R. 817.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    [1984] 1 All E.R. 740; [1984] A.C. 463.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    [1990]Crim.L.R. 527. See alsoYoung [1990]Crim.L.R. 752, where the Court of Appeal held that it was not permissible in law for a trial judge to allow the prosecution to amend the indictment to include a specific charge of buggery of a woman without consent.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    [1976] A.C. 182.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Report of the Advisory Group on the Law of Rape (1975), Cmnd. 6352.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Per section 46 of the SOA 1956.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Section 1(1) states: “The presumption of criminal law that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse [whether natural or unnatural] is hereby abolished.” The SOA 1993 received Royal Assent on July 20th 1993, and came into force on September 20th 1993.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See, for example,Gaston (1981) 73 Cr.App.R. 164.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See, for example,Hughes (1841) 9 C. & P. 752.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Section 44 states: “Where… it is necessary to prove sexual intercourse (whether natural or unnatural), it shall not be necessary to prove the completion of the intercourse by the emission of seed, but the intercourse shall be deemed complete upon proof of penetration only.”Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    CLRC Fifteenth Report, Sexual Offences, Cmnd. 9213, 1984.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Supra n.4. [1990]Crim.L.R. 527. See alsoYoung [1990]Crim.L.R. 752, where the Court of Appeal held that it was not permissible in law for a trial judge to allow the prosecution to amend the indictment to include a specific charge of buggery of a woman without consent.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See, for example,Courtie, supra n.3. [1984] 1 All E.R. 740; [1984] A.C. 463.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See, for example,Wall (1989) 11 Cr. Appl. R 111.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    [1986] 1 All E.R. 985.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    See, for example, N. Lacey et al,Reconstructing Criminal Law, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990, 324–328; “Unlawful Sex: Report of a Howard League Working Party”, 1985, ch.3.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    See, for example, M. King, “Male Sexual Assault in the Community”, in G. Mezey and M. King,Male Victims of Sexual Assault, Oxford University Press, 1992, ch.1.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schedule 10, para.36 of the CJPOA 1994, amending section 4 of the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1976.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    See the interpretation ofTyrell [1894] 1 Q.B. 710 in M. Wasik and R. Taylor,Blackstone's Guide to the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, Blackstone, 1994, 106.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Supra n.8. Section 1(1) states: “The presumption of criminal law that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse [whether natural or unnatural] is hereby abolished.” The SOA 1993 received Royal Assent on July 20th 1993, and came into force on September 20th 1993.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    In Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg the age of consent for both heterosexuals and homosexuals is 16. France's equal age of consent is 15, and Spain's is 12.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    SeeOlugboja [1981] 3 All E.R. 443.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    SeeSatnam & Kewal (1984) 78 Cr.App.R. 149.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sections 6(1) and 5(1) of the SOA 1956 respectively.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Deborah Charles Publications 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Selfe
    • 1
  1. 1.Liverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

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