Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine

, Volume 121, Issue 4, pp 434–437 | Cite as

An experimental study of the determination of volumes of turbulent blood flows by doppler echocardiography

  • Yu. N. Belenkov
  • I. V. Shatalova
  • V. A. Voronin


An experimental model is used to reproduce high-speed unsteady turbulent flows of small diameter (3 to 5 mm). The spectra of the simulated flows were recorded by the continuous Doppler method and their volumes were estimated as the product of the velocity-time integrals times the cross-sectional area of the tubes. The flow volumes were too high in comparison with the specified values in all cases, necessitating the use of correction factors. The factors were inversely proportional to the flow velocities, and thus to the turbulence (as is evident from the Reynolds turbulence equation). For the range of maximum velocities of turbulent intracardiac flows most frequently occurring in practice (140 to 500 cm/sec) the correction factors were 0.76–0.87. The method may be very helpful in developing noninvasive criteria of the severity of regurgitations, in differentiating these, and in determining the prognosis, particularly for borderline states and combined heart defects.

Key Words

Doppler echocardiography turbulent flow 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. Z. Rabinovich, in:Hydraulics [in Russian], Moscow (1963), pp. 76–174.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Hatle and B. Angelsen,Doppler Ultrasound in Cardiology, Lea and Febiger (1982).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Shiller and M. Osipov,Clinical Echocardiography [in Russian], Moscow (1993).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. S. Alverson, M. Eldrige, T. Dillon,et al., J. Pediatr.,101, No. 4, 46–50 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. J. Ascah, W. J. Stewart, L. Jiang,et al., Radiol. Clin. North Am.,23, No. 3, 24–29 (1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Bouchard, S. Blumlein, N. B. Shiller,et al., J. Am. College Cardiol.,9, No. 3, 75–81 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Crawford and N. Shiller,Cardiol. Clin.,8, No. 2, 36–49 (1990).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. D. Gillam, G. L. Kritzer, K. J. Ascah,et al., Circulation,63, No. 3, 99–106 (1985).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Ihlen, P. Amlie, J. Dale,et al., Br. Heart J.,51, No. 7, 54–60 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. E. Lewis, L. C. Kuo, J. G. Nelson,et al., Circulation,70, No. 7, 425–431 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. A. Nishimura, M. J. Callahan, H. V. Schaff,et al., Mayo Clin. Proc.,59, No. 10, 484–489 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Waters, O. L. Kwan, G. Kerns,et al., Circulation,66, No. 7, 597–604 (1983).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. P. Yoganatan, E. G. Cape, H. Sung,et al., J. Am. College Cardiol.,12, No. 11, 1344–1350 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Zang, S. Nitter-Hauge, H. Ihlen, and E. Myhre,Br. Heart J.,53, No. 4, 130–137 (1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu. N. Belenkov
    • 1
    • 2
  • I. V. Shatalova
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. A. Voronin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cardiology Research CenterRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscow
  2. 2.Joint Hospital and Outpatient Clinic, Medical CenterPresidential AdministrationMoscow

Personalised recommendations