International Journal of Anthropology

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 153–162 | Cite as

Detection of numerous CC and Cc membranes in the femoral condyle

  • F. Copf
  • A. Czarnetzki
  • P. Copf


The authors (1,2) discovered a two-membrane system in the head of the femur and its distal condyles (Copf et al. 1,2,3). The one membrane serves the hydrodynamic principle. It was termed the CC membrane. According to the provisional opinion of the authors, the second membrane, which is designated as Cc membrane, serves for exchange of fluid supply of energy and information flow in view of its original perforations. In contrast to the head of the femur, CC membranes are more numerous. The Cc membranes are also more numerous here, but in some cases differ in terms of their elongate form. The first impression indicates a very much more pronounced component of the hydrodynamic system in the region of the femoral condyle.


Articular Cartilage Femoral Condyle Membrane System Calcify Cartilage Hydrodynamic System 
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Copyright information

© Editrice II Sedicesimo 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Copf
    • 1
  • A. Czarnetzki
    • 2
  • P. Copf
    • 3
  1. 1.Staatrat von Fetzer HospitalStuttgart
  2. 2.Institute of Human GeneticsUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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