Advertisement

On/off control in FES-induced standing up: A model study and experiments

  • A. J. Mulder
  • P. H. Veltink
  • H. B. K. Boom
Rehabilitation Engineering

Abstract

Control of paraplegic standing up was studied with respect to the limitation of the end-velocity of the knee joint when the patient reaches the upright position. Closed-loop on/off control of knee extensor muscle was compared with open-loop controlled standing up both in a model study and in paraplegic patients in a controlled model situation. Criteria were knee-end-velocity and knee extensor muscle activation time. Sensitivity of the system to additional arm support and (in the model study) to the dynamics of knee extensor muscle was studied. It is concluded that the control scheme may reduce knee-end velocity to about 40 per cent and knee extensor activation time to near 70 per cent of the respective open-loop values.

Keywords

Functional electrical stimulation On/off control Paraplegic Standing up 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allin, J. andInbar, G. F. (1986) FNS control schemes for the upper limb.IEEE Trans.,BME-33, 818–828.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, B. J., Barnett, R. W., Phillips, G. F. andKirkwood, C. A. (1989) Rule-based control of a hybrid FES orthosis for assisting locomotion.Automedica,11, 175–199.Google Scholar
  3. Bajd, T., Kralj, A. andTurk, R. (1982) Standing-up of a healthy subject and a paraplegic patient.J. Biomech.,15, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baratta, R., Zhou, B. -H. andSolomonow, M. (1989) Frequency response model of skeletal muscle: effect of perturbation level, and control strategy.Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput.,27, 337–345.Google Scholar
  5. Bernotas, L. A., Crago, P. E. andChizeck, H. J. (1987) Adaptative control of electrically stimulated muscle.IEEE Trans.,BME-34, 140–147.Google Scholar
  6. Carroll, S. G., Triolo, R. J., Chizeck, H. J., Kobetic, R., Marsolais, E. B. (1989) Tetanic responses of electrical stimulated paralysed muscle at varying interpulse intervals.,BME-36, 644–653.Google Scholar
  7. Chandler, R. F., Clauser, C. E., McConville, J. T., Reynolds, H. M. andYoung, J. W. (1975) Investigation of the inertial properties of the human body. Report DOT HS-801430, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Crago, P. E., Mortimer, J. T. andPeckham, P. H. (1980) Closed loop control of muscle force during electrical stimulation of muscle.IEEE Trans.,BME-27, 306–311.Google Scholar
  9. Crago, P. E. (1983) Control of movements by functional neuromuscular stimulation.Eng. in Med. & Biol. Mag.,1, 32–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Durfee, W. K. andMacLean, K. E. (1989) Methods for estimating isometric recruitment curves of electrically stimulated muscle.IEEE Trans.,BME-36, 654–667.Google Scholar
  11. Graupe, D. andKohn, K. H. (1988) A critical review of EMG controlled stimulation in paraplegies.CRC Crit. Rev. in Biomed. Eng.,3, 187–209.Google Scholar
  12. Hill, A. V. (1938) The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle.Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B,B126, 136–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Isakov, E., Mizrahi, J. andNajenson, T. (1986) Biomechanical and physiological evaluation of Fes-activated paraplegic patients.J. Rehabil. Res. & Dev.,23, 9–19.Google Scholar
  14. Jaeger, R. J. (1986) Design and simulation of closed-loop electrical stimulation orthoses for restoration of quiet standing in paraplegia.J. Biomech.,19, 825–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karnopp, D. C. (1977) Lagrange's equations for complex bond graph systems.J. Dynamic Systems, Measurement & Control,99, 300–306.MATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Khang, G. (1988) Paraplegic standing controlled by functional neuromuscular stimulation: computer model, control-system design, and simulation studies. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Kralj, A., Bajd T. andTurk, R. (1980) Electrical stimulation providing functional use of paraplegic patient muscles.Med. Progr. through Technol.,7, 3–9.Google Scholar
  18. Luenberger, D. G. (1979)Introduction to dynamic systems. John Wiley Inc., New York, ISBN 0471025941.MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. McClelland, M., Andrews, B. J., Patrick, J. H., Freeman, P. A. andMasri, W. S. (1987) Augmentation of the Oswestry parawalker orthosis by means of surface electrical stimulation: gait analyses of three patients.Paraplegia,25, 32–38.Google Scholar
  20. Mulder, A. J., Boom, H. B. K., Hermens, H. J. andZilvold, G. (1990) Artificial-reflex stimulation for FES-induced standing with minimum quadriceps force.Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput.,28, 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nuzik, S., Lamb, R., VanSant, A. andHirt, S. (1986) Sit-to-stand movement pattern, a kinematic study.Phys. Ther.,66, 1708–1713.Google Scholar
  22. Peckham, P. H. (1987) Functional electrical stimulation: current status and future prospects of applications to the neuromuscular system in spinal cord injury.Paraplegia,25, 279–288.Google Scholar
  23. Petrofsky, J. S. andPhillips, C. A. (1979) Constant-velocity contractions in skeletal muscle by sequential stimulation of muscle efferents.Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput.,17, 583–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petrofsky, J. S., Phillips, C. A. andStafford, D. E. (1984) Closed-loop control for restoration of movement in paralyzed muscle.Orthopedics,7, 1289–1302.Google Scholar
  25. Petrofsky, J. S., Phillips, C. A., Larson, L. andDouglas, R. (1985) Computer synthesized walking: an application of orthosis and functional electrical stimulation (FES).J. Neurol. & Orthop. Med. & Surg.,6, 219–230.Google Scholar
  26. Phillips, C. A. (1989) Electrical muscle stimulation in combination with a reciprocating gait orthosis for ambulation by paraplegics.J. Biomed. Eng.,11, 338–344.Google Scholar
  27. Popovic, D., Tomovic, R. andSchwirtlich, C. (1989) Hybrid assistive system—the motor neuroprosthesis.IEEE Trans.,BME-36, 729–737.Google Scholar
  28. Rosman, N. andSpira, E. (1974) Paraplegic use of walking braces: survey.Arch. Phys. Med. & Rehabil.,55, 310–314.Google Scholar
  29. Rubin, O. (1986)Design of automatic control systems. Dedham, Artech House, ISBN 0890062188.Google Scholar
  30. Solomonow, M., Hirokawa, S., Baratta, R., Shoji, H. andD'Ambrosia, R. (1989a) Does FES damage the patients' joints? Proc. 3rd Vienna Int. Workshop on FES, Baden/Vienna, 17th–20th Sept., 33.Google Scholar
  31. Solomonow, M., Baratta, R., Walker, W. andHirokawa, S. (1989b) The RGO generation II: Muscle stimulation powered orthosis as a practical walking system for thoracic paraplegics.Orthopedics,12, 1309–1315.Google Scholar
  32. Stanic, U. andTrnkoczy, A. (1974) Closed-loop positioning of hemiplegic patient's joint by means of functional electrical stimulation.IEEE Trans.,BME-21, 365–370.Google Scholar
  33. Stefanovska, A., Vodovnik, L., Gros, N., Rebersek, S. andAcimovic-Janezic, R. (1989) FES and spasticity.,BME-36, 738–745.Google Scholar
  34. Trnkoczy, A. (1974) Variability of electrically evoked muscle contractions with special regard to closed-loop controlled orthosis.Ann. Biomed. Eng.,2, 226–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilhere, G. F., Crago, P. E. andChizeck, H. J. (1985) Design and evaluation of a digital closed-loop controller for the regulation of muscle force by recruitment modulation.IEEE Trans.,BME-32, 668–676.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFMBE 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Mulder
    • 1
  • P. H. Veltink
    • 1
  • H. B. K. Boom
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringTwente UniversityEnschedeThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations