Improvement in the oxidative folding of endothelin-1 by a lys-Arg extension at the amino terminus: Implication of a salt bridge between Arg−1 and Asp8
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An amino-terminal extension of endothelin-l by the lys-Arg dipeptide in the prosequence (KR-ET-1) greatly increased the ratio of native-type to non-native-type disulfide isomer (96/4 versus 71/29) during the oxidative folding reaction. This improvement was completely abolished by substituting Asn for Asp at position 8 (D8N-KR-ET-1), whereas most of it was maintained with similar carboxamide analogues replaced at Glu10 or Asp18. Structure analyses by circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that (i) in the carboxylate state, the α-helical content of the native-type isomer of KR-ET-l is higher than that of the native-type isomer of ET-1, while such a variation is not observed in the corresponding non-native-type isomer of KR-ET-l; and (ii) the enhanced α-helicity resulting from the Lys-Arg extension is largely diminished in D8N-KR-ET-l. From these results and our previous findings that the helical structure in KR-ET-l is stabilized by a particular salt bridge between the extended Arg−1 basic moiety and either the Asp8 or Glu10 acidic side chain in Et-1 [Aumelas, A. et al., Biochemistry, 34 (1995) 4546], we conclude that the formation of a specific salt bridge between the side chains of Arg−1 and Asp8 in KR-ET-1 is critical for the predominant generation of the native-type disulfide isomer, probably because it stabilizes the helical structure of parental ET-1.
Keywordsα-Helix Carboxamide substitution Circular dichroism Disulfide isomer KR-ET-1 Prosequence
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