Menadiol diphosphate, a new substrate for non-specific alkaline phosphatase in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry
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Menadiol diphosphate was introduced as a new substrate for nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, following a search for new and less expensive substrates, which give a more sensitive response and are easily synthesized in the laboratory. Menadiol released by phosphatase action can be assayed by its reduction of tetrazolium salts, or it can be coupled with diazonium salts; alternatively, the phosphate can be trapped by metal ions. The synthesis and purification of menadiol diphosphate are described, and it was shown to be sufficiently stable for qualitative and semiquantitative histochemistry, as well as for the immunohistochemistry of enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins with nonspecific alkaline phosphatase as the enzyme label. For qualitative as well as semiquantitative histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the best results were obtained by applying the method with nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) to acetone-chloroform pretreated cryostat sections. Tetranitro-blue tetrazolium (TNBT), benzothiazolylphthalhydrazidyl tetrazolium (BSPT) and various diazonium salts were less suitable. Fast Blue BB and VB produced satisfactory results. Ce3+ ions and the DAB−Ni−H2O2 procedure yielded better results than Ca2+ ions in the Co−(NH4)2S visualization method. The NBT method with menadiol diphosphate is superior to existing methods employing azo, azoindoxyl or tetrazolium salts and to metal precipitation methods. The Ce3+ technique and the NBT/menadiol diphosphate method give similar results, and appear to be of equal value. In qualitative histochemistry and immunohistochemistry the NBT/menadiol diphosphate method resulted in higher quantities of precisely localized stain. Semiquantitative histochemistry with minimal incubation revealed more favorable kinetics for the menadiol diphosphate method, especially when using NBT.
KeywordsTetrazolium Salt Diazonium Salt High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Indoxyl Final Reaction Product
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