Advertisement

AGE

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 50–55 | Cite as

A study of axonal degeneration in the optic nerves of aging mice

  • John E. JohnsonJr.
  • D. E. Philpott
  • Jaime Miquel
Article

Abstract

The optic nerves of C57BL/6J mice ranging from 3 to 30 months were examined by electron microscopy. At all ages investigated, optic nerve axons contained enlarged mitochondria with abnormal cristae. With increasing age, a large number of necrotic axons were observed and were in the process of being phagocytized. The abnormal mitochondria may represent preliminary changes that eventually lead to necrosis of the axon.

Keywords

Electron Microscopy Optic Nerve Aging Mouse Axonal Degeneration Nerve Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Masurovsky, E. D., Bunge, M. B., and Bunge, R. P.: Cytological studies of organotropic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia following x-irradiation in vitro I. Changes in neurons and satellite cells. J. Cell Biol., 32: 467–496, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Samorajski, T.: Late ultrastructural changes in neuronal mitochondria after ionizing radiation of the brain. J. Comp. Neurol., 161: 255–268, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, J. E., Jr.: A fine structural study of degenerative — regenerative pathology in the surgically deafferentated lateral vestibular nucleus of the rat. Acta Neuropath. (Berl.), 33: 227–243, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blakemore, W. F., and Cavanagh, J. B.: Neuroaxonal dystrophy occurring in an experimental “dying back” process in the rat. Brain, 92: 789–804, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lampert, P.: A comparative electron microscopic study of reactive, degenerating, regenerating and dystrophic axons. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol., 26: 345–268, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, J. E., Jr., Mehler, W. R., and Miquel, J.: A fine structural study of degenerative changes in the dorsal column nuclei of aging mice. Lack of protection by vitamin E. J. Gerontol., 30: 395–411, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Johnson, J. E., Jr., Mehler, W. R., and Oyama, J.: The effects of centrifugation on the morphology of the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat. A light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res., 106: 205–221, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Newberne, J. W., Robinson, V. B., Estill, L., and Brinkman, P. C.: Granular structures in brains of apparently normal dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res., 21: 782–786, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pentschew, A., and Schwarz, K.: Systemic axonal dystrophy in vitamin E deficient adult rats with implications in human neuropathology. Acta Neuropath., 1: 313–334, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friede, R. L., and Knoller, M.: Proximodistal increase of enzymatic activity in the dorsal spinal tracts. J. Neurochem., 11: 679–686, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hashimoto, P. H., and Palay, S. L.: Peculiar axons with enlarged endings in the nucleus gracilis. Anat. Rec., 151: 454–455, 1965Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sung, J. H.: Neuroaxonal dystrophy in aging, in Proc. V Int. Congr. of Neuropath. International Congress Series, No. 100, Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1966.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rustioni, A., and Sotelo, C.: Synaptic organization of the nucleus gracilis of the cat. Experimental identification of dorsal root fibers and cortical afferents. J. Comp. Neurol., 155: 441–468, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seitelberger, F.: Zur Morphologie and Histochemie der degenerativen Axonveranderungen im Zentralnervensystem, in Proc. III Int. Congr. of Neuropath., Acta Medica Belgica, 1957.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brannon, W., McCormick, W., and Lampert, P.: Axonal dystrophy in the gracile nucleus of man. Acta Neuropath., (Berl.), 9: 1–6, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fujisawa, K.: An unique type of axonal alteration (so-called axonal dystrophy) as seen in Goll’s nucleus of 277 cases of controls. Acta Neuropath. (Berl.), 8: 225–275, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jellinger, K., and Jirasek, A.: Neuroaxonal dystrophy in man: Character and natural history. Acta Neuropath. (Berl.), Suppl. No. 5: 3–16, 1971.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zu Rhein, G. M.: In Discussion to J. H. Sung and E. M. Stadlan, Neuroaxonal dystrophy in congenital biliary atresia. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol., 25: 119, 1966.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harman, D.: The biologic clock: The mitochondria? J. Am. Geriatrics Soc., 20: 145–147, 1972.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hess, A.: The fine structure of young and old spinal ganglia. Anat. Rec., 123: 399–424, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duncan, D., Nail, D., and Morales, R.: Observations on the fine structure of old age pigment. J. Geront., 15: 366–372, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim, S. U.: Brain hypoxia studied in mouse central nervous system cultures. I. Sequential cellular changes. Lab. Invest., 33: 658–669, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andrew, W.: The anatomy of aging in man and animals. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1971.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vrabec, F.: Senile changes in the ganglion cells of the human retina. Br. J. Ophthal., 49: 561–572, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Naranjo, J. N., and Greene, E. G.: Degenerative staining of aged rat brains. Neuroscience Abstracts, 2: 222, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Friedenwald, J. S.: The eye, in Problems in Aging, edited by Cowdry, E. V., Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1942, pp. 535–555.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lund, R. D., and Lund, J. S.: Modification of synaptic pattern in the superior colliculus of the rat during development and following deafferentation. Vision Res., Suppl. No. 3: 281–298, 1971.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnson, J. E., Jr., and Miquel, J.: Fine structural changes in the lateral vestibular nucleus of aging rats. Mech. Age Develop., 3: 203, 224, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Uchizono, K.: Synaptic organization of the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of the cat. Exp. Brain Res., 4: 97–113, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matsushima, S., and Ito, T.: Diurnal changes in sympathetic nerve endings in the mouse pineal: Semiquantitative electron microscopic observations. J. Neural. Trans., 33: 275–288, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnson, J. E., Jr.: Alterations in synaptic terminal types in the lateral vestibular nucleus of the rat following partial deafferentation. Anat. Rec., 178: 383–384, 1974.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schwab, M. E., and Thoenen, H.: Electron microscopic evidence for transsynaptic migration of tetanus toxin in spinal cord motoneurons: An autoradiographic and morphometric study. Brain Res., 105: 213–227, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Glucksmann, A.: Cell death in normal vertebrate ontogeny. Biol. Rev., 26: 59–86, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cowan, W. M.: Neuronal death as a regulative mechanism in the control of cell number in the nervous system, in Development and Aging in the Nervous System, edited by M. Rockstein, New York, Academic Press, 19–41, 1973.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pilar, G., and Landmesser, L.: Ultrastructural differences during embryonic cell death in normal and peripherally deprived ciliary ganglia. J. Cell. Biol., 68: 339–356, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brizzee, K. R.: Gross morphometric analyses and quantitive histology of the aging brain, in Neurobiology of Aging, edited by J. M. Ordy and K. R. Brizzee, New York, Plenum, 1975, pp. 401–423.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scheibel, M. E., Lindsay, R. D., Tomiyasu, U., and Scheibel, A. B.: Progressive dendritic changes in the aging human limbic system. Exp. Neurol., 53: 420–430, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Samorajski, T.: Age difference in the morphology of posterior tibial nerves of mice. J. Comp. Neurol., 157: 439–452, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Aging Association, Inc. 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. JohnsonJr.
    • 1
  • D. E. Philpott
    • 1
  • Jaime Miquel
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomedical Research DivisionNASA Ames Research CenterMoffett Field

Personalised recommendations