Human Evolution

, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp 547–555 | Cite as

Twinning frequency in catarrhine primates

  • T. Geissmann
Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

It has been repeatedly suggested that twinning frequency in most catarrhine primates is approximately the same as in humans, whereas the frequency in the chimpanzee and the gorilla might be higher. This study presents a re-evaluation of the evidence from the pertinent literature. It can be demonstrated that most data on twinning frequency in Old World monkeys and apes should not be used because of their small sample size. A lower limit of 1500 pregnancies is suggested here. If all frequency estimates taken from smaller samples are rejected, only four estimates forMacaca mulatta andPapio hamadryas remain. The estimates range from 0.19 to 0.35% and are in fact lower than the frequencies of most (but necessarily all) human populations. The published birth samples for apes are, however, relatively small, and the resulting twinning rates may not be reliable.

Key words

Twins Twinning frequency Multiple births Primates Catarrhini 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel W., 1933.Zwillinge bei Mantelpavianen und die Zwillingsanlage innerhalb der Primaten. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie, 31: 266–275.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous, 1972. Twin chimps saved by cesarean. Yerkes Newsletter, 9 (2): 18.Google Scholar
  3. Asanow N.S. &Lippert W., 1976.Bemerkungen zum Verhalten einer Mantelpavian-Gruppe (Papio hamadryas) gegenüber einer Mutter mit Zwillingen. Der Zoologische Garten (NF), 46: 108–117.Google Scholar
  4. Bourne G.H., Keeling M.E. &Bourne M.N.G., 1975.Breeding anthropoid apes and rhesus monkeys at the Yerkes Primate Center. In (F.T. Perkins and P.N. O’Donoghue, P.N., eds.). Breeding simians for developmental biology. Laboratory Animal Handbooks 6: 63–76. London: Laboratory Animals Ltd.Google Scholar
  5. Breitinger E., 1951.Schimpansenzwillinge. Die Mehrfrüchtigkeit bei den Pimaten. Die Umschau in Wissenschaft und Technik, 51: 563–565.Google Scholar
  6. Brüggemann S. &Grauwiler J., 1972.Breeding results from an experimental colony of Macaca arctoides. In (E.I. Goldsmith and J. Moor-Jankowski, eds.). Medical primatology 1972, part 1: General primatology, reproduction and perinatal studies, genetics, phylogenetics and evolution, pp. 216–226. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  7. Bulmer M.G., 1970.The biology of twinning in man. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burton F.D. &De Pelham A., 1979.A twinning event in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar. Journal of Medical primatology, 8: 105–112.Google Scholar
  9. Burton F.D. &Sawchuk L.A., 1974.Demography of Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar. Primates, 15: 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 1980.Biometrie. Grundzüge biologisch-medizinischer Statistik. Stuttgart: Fischer (5th ed.).Google Scholar
  11. Ciba-Geigy, 1980.Wissenschaftliche Tabellen Geigy, Teilband Statistik. 8th ed. Basel: Ciba-Geigy.Google Scholar
  12. Courtney K.D. &Valerio D.A., 1968.Teratology in Macaca mulatta. Teratology 1: 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eriksson A.W., 1973.Human twinning in and around the Åland Islands. Commentationes Biologicae, 64: 1–159. Helsingfors, Finnland: Societas Scientiarum Fennica.Google Scholar
  14. Fleischhacker W., 1968.Die Frankfurter Gorilla-Zwillinge. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 31: 55–69.Google Scholar
  15. Garey J.D., Erb Meuli L., Beers W.H., Holden M. &Jolly C.J., 1985.Diet and twinning in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 8: 338–339 (Abstract only).Google Scholar
  16. Geissmann T., in press.Multiple births in catarrhine monkeys and apes — A review. Firenze: Il Sedicesimo.Google Scholar
  17. Goodall J., 1983.Population dynamics during a 15 year period in one community of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 61: 1–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodall J., 1986.The chimpanzees of Gombe. Patterns of behavior. Cambridge; Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  19. Guilloud N.B., 1969.The breeding of apes: Experience at the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and a brief review of the literature. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 162: 297–300.Google Scholar
  20. Guttmacher A.F., 1953.The incidence of multiple births in man and some of the other unipara. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2: 22–35.Google Scholar
  21. Harms J.W., 1956.Fortpflanzunsbiologie. In (H. Hofer, A.H. Schultz and D. Starck, eds.). Primatologia. Handbuch der Primatenkunde, Vol. I: Systematik, Phylogenie, Ontogenie, pp. 561–660. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  22. Hendrickx A.G., Houston M.L. &Kraemer D.C., 1968.Observations on twin baboon embryos (Papio sp.). Anatomical Record, 160: 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hendrickx A.G. &Nelson G., 1971.Reproductive failure. In (E.S.E. Hafez, ed.). Comparative reproduction of nonhuman primates, pp. 403–425. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.Google Scholar
  24. Heuser R.L., 1967.Multiple births: United States — 1964. U.S. Public Health Service. Publication No. 1000, ser. 21, no. 14, 50 pp. Washington: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  25. Hill W.C.O., 1970.Primates. Comparative anatomy and taxonomy. 8. Cynopithecinae: Papio, Mandrillus, Theropithecus. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jones M.L., 1982.The orang-utan in captivity. In (L.E.M. DeBoer, ed.). The orang-utan. Its biology and conservation, pp. 17–37. The Hague: Dr W. Junk Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Keeling M.E. &Roberts J.R., 1972.Breeding and reproduction of chimpanzees. In (G.H. Bourne, ed.). The chimpanzee, Vol. 5: 127–152. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  28. Khoury M.J. &Erickson J.D., 1983.Maternal factors in dizygotic twinning: evidence from interracial crosses. Annals of Human Biology, 10: 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koford C.B., Farber P.A. &Windle W.F., 1966.Twins and teratisms in rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatologica, 4: 221–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kushner H., Kraft-Schreyer N., Angelakos E.T. &Wudarski E.M., 1982.Analysis of reproductive data in a colony of African green monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology, 11: 77–84.Google Scholar
  31. Lang E.M., 1973.Zwillinge bei unsern Orang-Utans. Zolli (Bull. Zool. Garten, Basel), 31: 14–15.Google Scholar
  32. Lapin B.A. &Yakovleva L.A., (1963).Comparative pathology in monkeys. (U. S. Joint Publications Research Service, transl.). Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.Google Scholar
  33. Martin D.E., 1981.Breeding great apes in captivity. In (C.E. Graham, ed.). Reproductive biology of the great apes. Comparative and biomedical perspectives, pp. 343–373. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mosteller M., Townsend J.I., Corey L.A. &Nance W.E., 1981.Twinning rates in Virginia: Secular trends and the effects of maternal age and parity. In (L. Gedda, P. Parisi and W.E. Nance, eds.). Twin research 3. Part A: Twin biology and multiple pregnancy, pp. 57–69. Progress in clinical and biological research. 69A. New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  35. Murphy M.F. 1982.Breeding statistics of western lowland gorillas Gorilla g. gorilla in the United States Zoological Parks. International Zoo Yearbook, 22: 180–185.Google Scholar
  36. Nesturkh M., 1959.The origin of man. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.Google Scholar
  37. Pasztor L.M. &van Horn R.N., 1976.Twinning in prosimians. Journal Human Evolution, 5: 333–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pasztor L.M. &van Horn R.N., 1979.Twinning. In (E.J. Andrews, B.C. Ward and N.H. Altman, eds.). Spontaneous animal models of human disease, Vol. I: 227–230. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Paul A. &Thommen D., 1984a.Differentieller Reproduktionserfolg und Reproduktionsstrategien weiblicher Berberaffen (Macaca sylvanus). Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 42: 185–190.Google Scholar
  40. Paul A. &Thommen D., 1984b.Timing of birth, female reproductive success and infant sex ratio in semifreeranging barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Folia Primatologia, 42: 2–16.Google Scholar
  41. Peacock L.J. &Rogers C.M., 1959.Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees. Science, 129: 959.Google Scholar
  42. Rawlins R.G., Kessler M.J. &Turnquist J.E., 1984.Reproductive Performance, population dynamics and anthropometrics of the free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology, 13: 247–259.Google Scholar
  43. Rudat K.-D., 1948.Mitteilung einer Zwillingsgeburt bei Javamakaken (Macaca irus mordax Thomas u. Wroughton Cynomolgus L.). Zentralblatt Gynäkologie, 70: 77–80.Google Scholar
  44. Schmidt C.R. (in prep.):Twin births in siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus).Schrier A.M. & Povar M.L., 1984.Twin stumptailed monkeys born in laboratory. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 23 (3): 18.Google Scholar
  45. Schultz A.H., 1948.The number of young at a birth and the number of nipples in primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology (N.S.), 6: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schultz A.H., 1956.The occurrence and frequency of pathological and teratological conditions and of twinning among non-human primates. In (H. Hofer, A.H. Schultz and D. Starck, eds.). Primatologia. Handbuch der Primatenkunde, Vol. I: Systematik, Phylogenie, Ontogenie, pp. 965–1014. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  47. Schultz A.H., 1969.The life of primates. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  48. Schultz A.H., 1969.The life of primates. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  49. Schultz A.H., 1972.Developmental abnormalities. In (R.N.T.-W. Fiennes, ed.). Pathology of simian primates. Part 1: General pathology, pp. 158–189. Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  50. Siegel S., 1956.Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. London & New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  51. Sly D.L., Harbaugh S.W., London W.T. &Rice J.M., 1983.Reproductive performance of a laboratory breeding colony of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). American Journal of Primatology, 4: 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. De Snoo K., 1942.Das Problem der Menschwerdung im Lichte der vergleichenden Geburtshilfe. Jena: Fischer.Google Scholar
  53. Starck D., 1974.Die Stellung der Hominiden im Rahmen der Säugetiere. In (G. Heberer, ed.). Die Evolution der Organismen, Vol. 3: Phylogenie der Hominiden, pp. 1–131. (3rd ed.), Fischer: Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  54. Stott K., 1946.Twins in green guenon. Journal of Mammalogy, 27: 394.Google Scholar
  55. Strandskov H.H., 1945.Plural birth frequencies in the total, the «white» and the «colored» U.S. populations. American Journal of physical Anthropology (N.S.), 3: 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tanaka T., Tokuda K. &Kotera S., 1970.Effects of infant loss on the interbirth interval of Japanese monkeys. Primates, 11: 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Taub D.M., 1983.Twinning among nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology, 4: 357 (Abstract only).Google Scholar
  58. Tickell S.R., 1864a.Note on the gibbon of Tenasserim, Hylobates lar. Journal and proceedings of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 33: 196–199.Google Scholar
  59. Tickell S.R., 1864b.Note on the gibbon of Tenasserim, Hylobates lar. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, 14: 360–363.Google Scholar
  60. Valerio D.A., Miller R.L., Innes J.R.M., Courtney K.D., Pallota A.J. &Guttmacher R.M., 1969.Macaca mulatta. Management of a laboratory breeding colony. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. van Wagenen G., 1968a.Studies in reproduction (Macaca mulatta). In (C.O. Miller, ed.). Proceedings, Conference on nonhuman primate toxicology, pp. 103–113. Washington: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  62. van Wagenen G., 1972.Vital statistics from a breeding colony. Reproduction and pregnancy outcome in Macaca mulatta. Journal of Medical Primatology, 1: 3–28.Google Scholar
  63. van Wagenen G. &Asling C.W., 1964.Ossification in the fetal monkey (Macaca mulatta). Estimation of age and progress of gestation by roentgenography. American Journal of Anatomy, 114: 107–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wildt D.E. &Dukelow W.R., 1974.The nonhuman primate as a model for human twinning. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 13 (4): 15–18.Google Scholar
  65. Yerkes R.M., 1934.Multiple births in anthropoid apes. Science, 79: 430–431.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Editrice II Sedicesimo 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Geissmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Anthropological InstituteUniversity Zürich-IrchelZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations