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Human Evolution

, 1:77 | Cite as

On the origins of body size dimorphism in primates

  • M. Pickford
Article

Abstract

Among many explanations concerning the origins of dimorphism in Primates, none has received as little attention as the differences in energy requirements of the two sexes. It is hypothesised that among Primates, a common strategy for overcoming the extra metabolic load of pregnency and lactation experienced by females during the greater part of their adult lifetimes, is for them to reduce their bodyweights relative to those of males. Such a strategy allows the mother plus infant combination to weight approximately as much as the species target weight or slightly less, preserving the balance between the species and the environment.

Once such body weight dimorphysm had evolved, they might secondarily lead to modifications in behaviour in the species. For example, the now relatively larger males might take on the role of troop protection as a result of their larger size. Such secondarily acquired social and behavioural roles would be expected to show a reasonably strong correlation with the existence of sexual size dimorphism in Primates, even though they may not have been the cause of the dimorphism, but only the result of it. It is evident however, that many dimorphic features in Primates, such as pelage differences, and differential canine size, have been the subject of different selection processes from those which led to the acquisition of differential body size.

Key words

dimorphism differential dimorphisms target weight energy requirement lactation bimaturation 

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Copyright information

© Editrice II Sedicesimo 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pickford
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept PalaeontologyJohannes-Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzWest Germany

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