Influence of solvent concentration on the microstructure of SiO2−TiO2 sol-gel films
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Spin-coating is one of the possible methodsfor the fabrication of optical planar waveguides. These have several applications in integrated optical devices, provided that their optical losses are below ≈1 dB/cm. The attenuation is caused in part by surface and bulk scattering. The latter depends on the microstructure of the films and, more particularly, the porosity, which is studied here. A series of SiO2−TiO2 films were prepared from solutions containing different concentrations of ethanol. The influence of the ethanol/(Si+Ti)alkoxides volume ratio on the porosity was investigated by Ellipsometry, Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The porosity volume fraction was found to reach a minimum when the ethanol volume ratio is near 4.
Keywordsethanol porosity scattering sol-gel films waveguides
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