Advertisement

Human Evolution

, Volume 13, Issue 3–4, pp 161–188 | Cite as

Development of phrases in the early utterances of children and cross-fostered chimpanzees

  • B. T. Gardner
  • R. A. Gardner
Article

Abstract

Project Washoe and its sequel with Moja, Pili, Tafu, and Dar, simulated with infant chimpanzees the conditions in which the language of human children develops gradually and-piecemeal into the language of human parents. This article traces patterns of growth and development in the early utterances of children and chimpanzees. The evidence for continuous processes and variables contradicts the yes-no, either-or Aristotelian logic of philosophical linguistics that has prevailed for so long. What the children and chimpanzees actually say supports, instead, a view of common laws and continuity that is much more compatible with modern natural science.

Key words

Project Washoe Cross-Forested Chimpanzees Language origin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barrett, M. (1989). Early language development. In A. Slater & G. Bremmer (Eds.), Infant development, (pp. 211–241). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, E., O’Connell, B., & Shore, C. (1987). Language and communication in infancy. In J.D. Osofsky (Ed.),Handbook of infant development. (2nd ed.), (pp. 149–203). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Bloom, L. (1970).Language development: Form and function in emerging grammars. Cambridge MA: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bloom, L. (1991).Language development from two to three. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bloom, L., Lightbown, P., & Hood, L. (1975). Structure and variation in child language. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 40 (2) Ser. No. 160.Google Scholar
  6. Bloom, L., Rocissano, L., & Hood, L. (1976). Adult-child discourse: Developmental interaction between information processing and linguistic knowledge.Cognitive Psychology, 8, 521–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohannon, J.N., & Stanowicz, L. (1989). Bidirectional effects of imitation and repetition in conversation: A synthesis within a cognitive model. In G.E. Speidel & K.E. Nelson (Eds.),The many faces of imitation in language learning, (pp. 121–150). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Bowerman, M. (1973).Early syntactic development, London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Braine, M.D. (1976). Children’s first word combinations.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 11 (1, Serial No. 164), 1–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brinton, B. & Fujiki, M. (1984). Development of topic manipulation skills in discourse.Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 4, 350–358.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, R. (1970). The first sentences of child and chimpanzee. In R. Brown (Ed.),Selected psycholinguistic papers, (pp. 208–281). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, R. (1973).A first language: The early stages, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chomsky, N. (1967). The formal nature of language. In: E.H. Lenneberg,Biological foundations of language. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Chomsky, N. (1972).Language and mind. (Extended ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, M.A., & Gross, P.J. (1979).The developmental resource: Behavioral sequences for assessment and program planning. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  16. Cokely, D.R., & Gawlik, R. (1974). Childrenese as Pidgin.Sign Language Studies, 5, 72–81.Google Scholar
  17. De Villiers, J.G., & De Villiers, P.A. (1986). The acquisition of English. In D.I. Slobin (Ed.),The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, (Vol. 1, pp. 27–139). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Drumm, P., Gardner, B.T. & Gardner, R.A. (1986). Vocal and gestural responses of cross-fostered chimpanzees.American Journal of Psychology, 99, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ellenberger, R., & Steyaert, M. (1978). A child’s representation of action in American Sign Language. In P. Siple (Ed.),Understanding language through sign language research (pp. 261–269), New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gardner, B.T., & Gardnen, R.A. (1971). Two-way communication with an infant chimpanzee. In A. Schrier & F. Stollnitz (Eds),Behavior of nonhuman primates, (Vol. 4, pp. 117–184). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gardner, B.T., & Gardner, R.A. (1974). Comparing the early utterances of child and chimpanzee. In A. Pick (Ed.),Minnesota symposium on child psychology, (Vol. 8, pp. 3–23), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gardner, B.T., & Gardner, R.A. (1975). Evidence for sentence constituents in the early utterances of child and chimpanzee.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 244–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gardner, B.T., & Gardner, R.A. (1989). Cross-fostered chimpanzees: II. Modulation of meaning. In P.G. Heltne & L.A. Marquardt (Eds.),Understanding chimpanzees, (pp. 234–241). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gardner, B.T., Gardner, R.A., & Nichols, S.G. (1989). The shapes and uses of signs in a cross-fostering laboratory. In R.A. Gardner, B.T. Gardner, & T.E. Van Cantfort (Eds.),Teaching sign language to chimpanzees, Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gardner, R.A., & Gardner, B.T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee.Science, 165, 664–672Google Scholar
  26. Gardner, R.A., & Gardner, B.T. (1973). Teaching Sign Language to the Chimpanzee, Washoe. (16 mm sound film). State College, PA: Psychological Cinema Register.Google Scholar
  27. Gardner, R.A., & Gardner, B.T. (1974). Teaching sign language to the chimpanzee, Washoe.Bulletin D’Audio Phonologie, (5), 145–173.Google Scholar
  28. Gardner, R.A., & Gardnen, B.T. (1989). A cross-fostering laboratory. In R.A. Gardner, B.T. Gardner, & T.E. Van Cantfort (Eds.),Teaching sign language to chimpanzees, Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  29. Gardner, R.A., Gardner, B.T., & Van Cantfort, T.E. (Eds.) (1989).Teaching sign language to chimpanzees, Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  30. Gardner, R.A., Van Cantfort, T.E., & Gardner, B.T. (1992). Categorical replies to categorical questions by cross-fostered chimpanzees.American Journal of Psychology, 105, 25–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hebb, D.O., & Thompson, W.R. (1968). The social significance of animal studies. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.),The handbook of social psychology (2nd ed.) Vol. II. Research methods, (pp. 729–774). Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  32. Hoffmeister, R.J., Moores, D.F., & Ellenberger, R.L. (1975). Some procedural guidelines for the study of the acquisition of sign languages.Sign Language Studies, 7, 121–137.Google Scholar
  33. Hoffmeister, R., & Wilbur, R. (1980). Developmental: The acquisition of sign language. In H. Lane & F. Grosjean (Eds.),Recent prespectives on American Sign Language, (pp. 61–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Keenan, E. Ochs (1977). Making it last: Repetition in children’s discourse. In S. Ervin-Tripp and C. Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.),Child discourse, (pp. 125–138. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Klima, E.S., & Bellugi, U. (1979).The signs of language. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kosko, B. (1993).Fuzzy thinking: The new science of fuzzy logic. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  37. Leonard, L.B. (1976).Meaning in child language, New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  38. Moore, T.E. (Ed.) (1973).Cognitive development and the acquisition of language. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Nelson, K. (March, 1980). First words of the chimp and child. Paper presented at the Southeastern Psychological Association Symposium on Apes and Language.Google Scholar
  40. Newport, E.L., & Meier, R.P. (1986). The acquisition of American Sign Language. In D.I. Slobin (Ed.)The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition, (Vol. 1, pp. 881–938). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Reich, P.A. (1986).Language development, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Rimpau, J.B., Gardner, R.A., & Gardner, B.T. (1989). Expression of person, place and instrument in ASL utterances of children and chimpanzees. In R.A. Gardner, B.T. Gardner & T.E. Van Cantfort (Eds.),Teaching sign language to chimpanzees, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  43. Scollon, R. (1979). A real early stage: An unzippered condensation of a dissertation on child language. In E. Ochs & B. Schieffelin (Eds.), Developmental pragmatics, (pp. 215–227). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Stokoe, W.C. (1978). Sign language versus spoken language.Sign Language Studies [18, 69–90.Google Scholar
  45. Uzgiris, I.C., Broome, S., & Kruper, J.C. (1989). Imitiation in mother-child conversations: A focus on the mother. In G.E. Speidel & K.E. Nelson (Eds.),The many faces of imitation in language learning, (pp. 91–120). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. Van Cantfort, T.E., Gardner, B.T., & Gardner, R.A. (1989). Developmental trends in replies to Wh-questions by children and chimpanzees. In R.A. Gardner, B.T. Gardner & T.E. Van Cantfort (Eds.),Teaching sign language to chimpanzees, Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  47. Wells, G. (1974). Learning to code experience through language.Journal of Child Language, 1, 243–269.Google Scholar
  48. Wilbur, R. (1980). The linguistic description of American Sign Language. In H. Lane & F. Grosjean (Eds.).,Recent perspectives on American Sign Language, (pp. 7–31), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  49. Zadeh, L.A., & Kacprzyk, J. (Eds.) (1992).Fuzzy logic for the management of uncertainty, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for the Study of Man 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. T. Gardner
    • 1
  • R. A. Gardner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Center for Advanced StudiesUniversity of Nevada/296RenoUSA

Personalised recommendations