Advertisement

Human Evolution

, Volume 18, Issue 3–4, pp 229–241 | Cite as

Sangiran 5,(“Pithecanthropus dubius”), homo erectus, “Meganthropus,” orPongo?

  • Tyler D. E. 
Article

Abstract

There are now eleven known mandibular remains from the Lower and Middle Pleistocene of Java, all but one being from the Sangiran site. All of these have been assigned toHomo erectus by most workers, while others have suggested as many as four different hominoid taxa. The author finds that the jaws cannot be a homogeneous sample. Morphologically, they are a mixture of undoubtedH. erectus, “H. meganthropus,” and possibly a pongid. If the jaws are allH. erectus then they have a sexual dimorphism exceeding that of modern gorillas. The case of“Pithecanthropus dubius” (Sangiran 5) is even less certain; even its hominid status is disputed. If it is indeedHomo it must be placed with the other“H. meganthropus” specimens. Its size and morphology are well beyond the known range anyH. erectus.

Key words

Homo erectus “Meganthropus” Pongo Java Southeast Asia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown, W.L. (1958). Some zoological concepts applied to problems in evolution of the hominid lineage.Am. Sci., 46, 151–158.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, B.G. (1973). New concepts in physical anthropology: fossil man.Ann. Rev. Anthrop., 1, 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coon, C.S. (1962).The Origin of Races. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Curtis, G.H. (1981). Man’s immediate forerunners: Establishing a relevant time scale in anthropological and archaeological research.Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Series B, 292, 7–20.Google Scholar
  5. Franzen, J.L. (1985a). Asian australopithecines? In (P.V. Tobias Ed.)Hominid Evolution: Past, Present, and Future, pp. 255–263. New York: Liss.Google Scholar
  6. Franzen, J.L. (1985b). What is “Pithecanthropus dubius Koenigswald, 1950”? In (E. Delson Ed.)Ancestors: The Hard Evidence, pp. 221–226. New York: Liss.Google Scholar
  7. Itihara, M., Sudijono, S., Kadar, D., Shibisaki, T., Kumai, H., Yoshikawa, S., Aziz, F., Soeradi, T., Wikarno, Kadar, A.P., Hadibuan, F. & Kagemori, Y. (1985a). Geology and stratigraphy of the Sangiran area. In (N. Watanabe & D. Kadar Eds.)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 11–27.Google Scholar
  8. Itihara, M., Kadar, D. & Watanabe, N., (1985b). Concluding remarks In (N. Watanabe & D. Kadar Eds.)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 367–378.Google Scholar
  9. Jacob, T. (1973). Paleoanthropological discoveries in Indonesia with special reference to the finds of the last two decades.J. hum. Evol. 2, 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jacob, T. (1980). “Pithecanthropus” of Indonesia: The phenotype, genetics, and ecology. In (L.K. Konigsson Ed.)Current Arguments on Early Man, Proceedings of a Nobel Symposium, 41 Karlskoga, Sweden, May, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. von Koenigswald, G.H.R. (1949). The discovery of early man in Java and southern China. In (W.W. Howells (Ed.)Early Man in the Far East, pp. 83–98. Philadelphia: Studies in Physical Anthropology I.Google Scholar
  12. von Koenigswald, G.H.R. (1954).“Pithecanthropus”, “Meganthropus” and the Australopithecinae.Nature, 173, 795–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. von Koenigswald, G.H.R. (1960). “Meganthropus palaeojavanicus v.K.” a new fossil hominid from Java.Cong. Int. Anthrop. Ethnol. Bruxelles, 1948, pp. 271–272.Google Scholar
  14. Kramer, A. (1989).The Evolutionary and Taxonomic Affinities of the Sangiran Mandibles of Central Java, Indonesia. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  15. Kramer, A. & L.W. Konigsberg (1994). The phyletic position of Sangiran 6 as determined by multivariate analysis. In (J.L. Franzen Ed.) 100 Years of Pithecanthropus: The Homo erectus Problem, pp.105–114. Frankfurt a.M. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  16. Krantz, G.S. (1975). An explanation for the diastema of Java erectus skull IV. In (R.H. Tuttle Ed.)Paleoanthropology, Morphology, and Paleoecology, pp. 361–372. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  17. Krantz, G.S. (1981).The Process of Human Evolution. Cambridge, mA: Schenkman Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  18. Krantz, G.S. (1994). The palate of skull Sangiran 4 from Java. In (J.L. Franzen, Ed.)100 Years of Pithecanthropus: The Homo erectus Problem, pp. 69–74. Frankfurt a.M.: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  19. Le Gros Clark, W.E. (1955).The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution, 3rd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lieberman, D.E., Pilbeam, D.R. and Wood, B.A. (1988). A probabilistic approach to the problem of sexual dimorphism inHomo habilis: a comparison of KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813.Journal of Human Evolution, 17, 503–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lovejoy, C.O. (1970). The taxonomic status of the “Meganthropus” mandibular fragments from the Djetis beds of Java.Man N.S. 5, 228–236.Google Scholar
  22. Matsu’ura, S. (1982). A chronological framing for the Sangiran hominids: Fundamental study by the fluorine dating method.Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Ser. D (Anthropology), 8, 1–53.Google Scholar
  23. Matsu’ura, S. (1985). A consideration of the stratigraphic horizons of hominid finds from Sangiran by the fluorine method. In (N. Watanabe & D. Kadar Eds.)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number. 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 359–366.Google Scholar
  24. Nishimura, S., Ikeda, T. & Yokoyama, T. (1980). A fundamental investigation on the fission-track method.Report for Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, pp. 5–11.Google Scholar
  25. Orchiston, D.W. & Siesser, W.G. (1982). Chronostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominids of Java.Mod. Quat. Res. SE Asia, 7, 131–149.Google Scholar
  26. Piveteau, J. (1957).Traite de Paleontologie. Volume VII. Paris: Maisson et Cie.Google Scholar
  27. Pope, G.G. & Cronin, J.E. (1984). The Asian hominidae.Journal of Human Evolution 13, 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rightmire, G.P. (1990).The evolution of Homo erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Robinson, J.T. (1955). Further remarks on the relationship between “Meganthropus” and australopithecines.Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 13, 429–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson, J.T. (1972).Early Hominid Posture and Locomotion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Sartono, S. (1961). Notes on a new find of a “Pithecanthropus” mandible.Publikasi. Tenik. Seri. Paleontologi 2, 1–51.Google Scholar
  32. Sartono, S. (1974). A new discovery of hominid remains from Sangiran, Central Java.Berita. Direket. Geol. Geosurv. News., 6, 2–3.Google Scholar
  33. Sartono, S. (1980). Pre-sapiens migration in Southeast Asia.Internat. Ass. Historians of Asia, VIIIth Conference, Kualalumpur (Malaysia), August, 1980.Google Scholar
  34. Sudijono, S. (1985). The Grenzbank, a key marker bed. In (N. Watanabe & D. Kadar Eds.)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 253–274.Google Scholar
  35. Suzuki, M. & Wikarno, B. (1982). Fission-track ages of pumice tuff layers and javites of hominid bearing Formations in Sangiran, Central Java.Comm. XI Int. Congr. INQUA, 2, 322, Moscow.Google Scholar
  36. Suzuki, M., Wikarno, B., Saefudin, I. & Itihara M. (1985). Fission-track ages of pumice tuff, tuff layers and javites of hominid fossil bearing formations in Sangiran area, Central Java. In (N. Watanabe & D. Kadar Eds.)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 309–358.Google Scholar
  37. Swisher, C.C., Curtis, G.H., Jacob, T., Getty, A.G., Suprijo, A., & Widrasmoro (1994). Age of the Earliest Known Hominids in Java, Indonesia.Science, 263, 1118–1121.Google Scholar
  38. Tobias, P.V. & von Koenigswald, G.H.R. (1964). A comparison between the Olduvai hominines and those of Java and some implications for hominid phylogeny.Nature, 204, 515–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tyler, D.E. (in press). Three newHomo erectus mandibles from Java. (Human Evolution).Google Scholar
  40. Tyler, D.E. (in press). Two new “Meganthropus” mandibles from Java. (Human Evolution).Google Scholar
  41. Tyler, D.E. (in press). The Hominid cranial remains from Java. (Human Evolution).Google Scholar
  42. Tyler, D.E. (1991). A taxonomy of Javan hominid mandibles.Human Evolution, 6, 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tyler, D.E. (1994). The taxonomic status of “Meganthropus.” In (J.L. Franzen, Ed.)100 Years of “Pithecanthropus”: The Homo erectus Problem, pp. 115–121. Frankfurt a.M.: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  44. Tyler, D.E. (1995). The current picture of hominid evolution in Java.Acta Anthropological Sinica., 14, (4):285–299.Google Scholar
  45. Watanabe, N. & Kadar, D., eds. (1985).Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java. Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4 Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre.Google Scholar
  46. Weidenreich, F. (1945). Giant early man from Java and South China.Anthrop. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 40, 1–134.Google Scholar
  47. Wolpoff, M.H. (1975). Some aspects of human evolution. In (J.A. McNamara Ed.)Determinants of Mandibular Form and Growth, pp. 1–64. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  48. Wolpoff, M.H. (1980).Paleoanthropology. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  49. Wolpoff, M.H. (1999). Paleoanthropology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Yokoyama, T., Hadiwisastra, S. Hantoro, W., Matsuda, T. & Nishimura, S. (1980). K-Ar age of the “Lahar Tuff” lowest part of the Pucangan Formation, Pleistocene of Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia.Riset. Geologi dan Pertambangan, LIPI, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
  51. Zhang, Yinyun (1984). The “Australopithecus” of West Hubai and some early Pleistocene hominids of Indonesia.Acta Anthropol. Sinica, 3, 92.Google Scholar
  52. Zhang, Yinyun (1985). Gigantopithecus and “Australopithecus” in China. In (Wu Rukang & J.W. Olson Eds.)Paleoanthropology and Paleolithic Archaeology in the People’s Republic of China, pp. 69–78. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for the Study of Man 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tyler D. E. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

Personalised recommendations