Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects

Abstract

Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice preparations was studied in noninsulin dependent diabetic subjects. Diets containing 50 g carbohydrate equivalent were given and post-prandial blood glucose estimated at different intervals. Glycemic index calculated for different experimental diets showed that GI of amaranth-wheat composite flour diet (25∶75) was the least (65.6%) followed by wheat diet (65.7%), rice diet (69.2%), amaranth-wheat flour 50∶50 (75.5%), and popped amaranth in milk (97.3%). Therefore 25∶75 combination of amaranth and wheat, wheat and rice can be considered low GI food, 50∶50 grain amaranth and wheat medium GI food and popped amaranth and milk combination high GI food.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Hauptli H (1977) Agronomic potential and breeding strategy for grainAmaranthus. Proc First amaranthus Seminar, 29 July 1977, 71, Emmaus PA: Rodale Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Becker R, Wheeler EL, Lorenz K, Stafford AE, Grosjean OK, Betschart AA, Saunders RM (1981) A compositional study of grain amaranth. J Food Sci 46: 1175–1180.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Becker R (1989) Preparation, composition and nutritional implication of grain, amaranth seed oil. ACFW — review. Cereal Food World 34: 950–953.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR (1988) Composition of the seeds of some amaranthus species. J Sci Food Agric 42: 325–329.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Lorenz K, Wright B (1984) Phytate and tannin content of amaranth. Food Chem 14: 27–31.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Fernando K, Bean G (1985) A comparison of the fatty acids and sterols of weedy and vegetable spices ofAmaranthus sp. JAOCS 62 89–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Breen WB (1991) Food uses of grain amaranth. Cereal Food World 36: 426–429.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Sanchez-Marroquin A, Feria-Morales A, Maya S, Ramos Moreno V (1987) Processing, nutritional quality and sensory evaluation of amaranth enriched corn tortilla. J Food Sci 25: 1611–1615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Paredes-Lopez O, Mora Escobedo R (1989) Germination of amaranth seeds: effects on nutrient composition and color. J Food Sci 54: 761–765.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Mendoza CM, Bressani R (1987) Nutritional and functional characteristics of extrusion cooked amaranth flour. Cereal Chem 64: 218–224.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sanchez-Marroquin A, Maya S, Domingo MV (1985) Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes. Arch Latinoam Nutri 35: 603–608.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Tovar LR, Brito E, Takahashi T, Sariano J, Fujimoto K (1989) Dry heat popping of amaranth seed might damage some of its amino acids. J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 39: 299–305.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Tillman PB, Waldroup PW (1988) Assessment of extruded grain amaranth as a food ingredient for broilers, 1: Apparent metabolizable energy values. Poult Sci 67: 641–645.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chaturvedi A, Sarojini G, Devi NL (1993) Hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranthus seeds (Amaranthus esculentus). J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 44: 63–70.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Miller JB, Pang E, Bramall L (1992) Rice: a high or low glycemic index food. Am J Clin Nutr 56: 1034–1036.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ross SW, Brand JC, Thornburn AW, Truswell SA (1987) Glycemic index of processed wheat products. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 631–635.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Thorne MJ (1983) The relationship between glycemic response, digestibility and factors influencing the dietary habits of diebetics. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 481–488.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Trinder (1969) Blood glucose and its determination: Practical chemical biochemistry, Vol. 1, Chapter 13. 5th edn. William Heinmann Medical Books, pp. 395–396.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Reaven GM (1984) Utility of studies measuring glucose and inscelin responses to various carbohydrate containing foods. Am J Clin Nutri 39: 163–165.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sandstedt RM, Strahan D, Veda S, Abbot RC (1962) The digestibility of high amylose corn starches compared to that of other starches: The apparent effect on the aegene on the susceptibility to amylose action. Cereal Chem 39: 123–131.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH (1980) Rate of digestion of foods and postprandial glycemic in normal and diabetic subjects. Br Med J 2: 14–17.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    O'Dea K, Snow P, Nestel P (1981) Rate of starch hydrolysis in vitro as a predictor of metabolic responses to complex carbohydrate in vivo. Am J Clin Nutri 34: 1991–1993.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Snow P, O'Dea K (1981) Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food. Am J Clin Nutri 34: 2721–2727.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    collier G, McLean A, O'Dea K (1984) Effect of co-ingestion of fat on the metabolic responses to slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates. Diabetologia 26: 50–54.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Anderson IH, Levine AS, Levitt MD (1981) Incomplete absorption of the carbohydrate in all purpose wheat flour. N Engl J Med 304: 891–892.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Crapo PA, Reaven G, Olefsky J (1976) Plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered simple and complex carbohydrates. Diabetes 25: 741–747.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Snow P, O'Dea K (1981) Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 2721–2722.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Collings P, Williams C, Mac Donald I (1981) Effects of cooking on serum glucose and insulin response to starch. Br Med J 282: 1032–1037.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Lee PC, Brooks SP, Kim O, Heitlinger LA, Lebental E (1985) Digestibility of native and modified starches: in vitro studies with human and rabbit pancreatic amylases and in vivo studies in rabbits. J Nutr 115: 93–103.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 362–366.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM, Reaven GM (1988) Comparison of plasma glucose and insulin response to mixed meals of high, intermediate and low glycemic potential. Diabetes Care 11: 323–329.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Laine DC, Thomas W, Levitt MD, Bantle JP (1987) Comparison of predictive capabilities of diabetic change lists and glycemic index of foods. Diabetes Care 10: 387–394.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Francis RJ, Rizkalla SW, Anne Blayo, Anne-Marie Fontvieille, Marie-Joelle Haardt, Martine Letanous, Georges Tchobroutsky, Gerard Salma (1987) Insulinemic and glycemic indexes of six starch-rich foods taken alone and in a mixed meal by type 2 diabetics. Am J Clin Nutri 45: 588–595.

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    goddard MS, Young G, Marcus R (1984) The effect of amylose content on insulin and glucose responses to ingested rice. Am J Clin Nutri 39: 388–392.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Jenkins D, Zahariadis G, Amir FA (1989) Health implications of the processing of starchy foods. Cereal Food World 34: 860.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Nutritive value of Indian Foods (1989) ICMR Publication, 47p.

  37. 37.

    Kamath VM, Bhavani B (1980) Unavailable carbohydrates of commonly consumed Indian foods. J Sci Food Agric 31: 194–202.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chaturvedi, A., Sarojini, G., Nirmala, G. et al. Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects. Plant Food Hum Nutr 50, 171–178 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02436036

Download citation

Key words

  • Grain amaranth
  • Glycemic index (GI)
  • Composite flour
  • Popped amaranth
  • Unleavened bread
  • Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellites