Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 387–396 | Cite as

Geostrategies for both power and peace in KwaZulu-Natal: a neorealist analysis

  • Griggs Richard 
Postmodernity and the Territorial Discourse of Peace

Abstract

A neorealist analysis that interrelates structure, agency and discourse in the context of action-based categories is utilized to examine the spatial dynamics of the peace process in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa where some 15,000 people have died in ten years of politically-motivated killings. The tactics employed by the two principle actors to influence the territorial distribution of power result in discursive formations and political structures that can contradict the requirements for building peace. By examining the geostrategic objectives, power bases, alliances and tactics of each political party one can deduce seven contingent political factors that reproduce spaces of violence and ‘no go’ areas.

Keywords

Environmental Management Political Party Principle Actor Political Factor Spatial Dynamic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. African National Congress: Structures and principles of a constitution for a democratic South Africa. Johannesburg 1991.Google Scholar
  2. African National Congress: Ready to govern. Johannesburg 1992.Google Scholar
  3. African National Congress: Building a United Nation: policy proposals for the final constitution. Johannesburg 1995.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, J.: Property relations and landlordism: a realist approach. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 6, 339–365 (1983).Google Scholar
  5. The Argus: IFP Moves to defy state on fate of Zulus, p. 5, 21 August 1995.Google Scholar
  6. Bhaskar, Roy: A realist theory of science. Leeds Books Ltd 1975.Google Scholar
  7. Bhaskar, Roy: Scientific realism and human emancipation. London: Verso 1986.Google Scholar
  8. Bhaskar, Roy: Reclaiming reality. London: Verso 1989.Google Scholar
  9. Carrim, Yunus Ismail: Debates of the National Assembly, Second Session, First Parliament. Tuesday 6 June 1995.Google Scholar
  10. Central Statistical Services: Provincial Statistics, Report No. 00–90–95, Pretoria 1994.Google Scholar
  11. Cloke, Paul; Philo, Chris; Saddler, David: Approaching human geography. London: Paul Chapman Publishing 1991.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, Saul; Rosenthal, L. D.: A geographical model for political Systems analysis. Geographical Review 61, 5–31 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Constitutional Assembly of the Republic of South Africa: Working Draft of the New Constitution. 22 November 1995.Google Scholar
  14. Dalby, Simon: (1988), Geopolitical discourse: the Soviet Union as Other.Alternatives 13, 414–432 (1988).Google Scholar
  15. Dodds, Klaus-John: War stories: British elite normatives of the 1982 Falklands/Malvinas War. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 11 (1993).Google Scholar
  16. de Klerk, F. W.: Debates of the National Assembly, Second Session, First Parliament. Thursday June 1, Cape Town 1995.Google Scholar
  17. de Haas, Mary; Zulu, Paulus Zulu: Ethnicity and federalism: the case of KwaZulu-Natal. Journal of Southern African Studies 20(3), 433–466 (1994).Google Scholar
  18. de Lille, Patricia: Where do we go from here? The view of the Pan Africanist Congress, in The Political Economy of Federalism in South Africa (edited by Hennie Kotzé), Stellenbosch: Centre for International and Comparative Politics 1995.Google Scholar
  19. Dexter, Phillip David: Debates of the National Assembly, Second Session, First Parliament. Thursday June 1, Cape Town 1995.Google Scholar
  20. Drimie, Scott: The analysis of the discourse on Federalism in KwaZulu-Natal. Unpublished Ms, University of Cape Town, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. Eveleth, Ann: Imbizo likely to inflame KwaZulu-Natal. Mail and Guardian 12(4), 4 (26 January 1996).Google Scholar
  22. Financial Mail: (1995), Suspicion of selective prosecution, p. 22, 10 November 1995.Google Scholar
  23. Glassner, Ira: Political geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1993.Google Scholar
  24. Goldstein, Joshua S.: International relations. Washington, DC: The American University 1994.Google Scholar
  25. Griggs, Richard: The meaning of nation and state in the Fourth World, Occasional Paper No. 18. Kenmore, Washington: Center for World Indigenous Studies 1992.Google Scholar
  26. Griggs, Richard: Ethnicity vs nationalism — The European nations. National Geographic Research and Exploration 10(3), 259–265 (1994).Google Scholar
  27. Griggs, Richard: The conceptual boundaries of genocide. Boundary and Security Bulletin 3(4), 109–110 (1995a).Google Scholar
  28. Griggs, Richard: The map of war in 1995 Africa. Internationales Afrikaforum 31(2), 163–166 (1995b).Google Scholar
  29. Hamilton, G.: An appetite for the post: the recreation of Shaka and the crisis in popular historical consciousness. South African Historical Journal 22: 141–157 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamilton, Georgina; Maré, Gerhard: The Inkatha Freedom Party, in Election '94 South Africa (edited by Andrew Reynolds). Cape Town: David Philip 1994.Google Scholar
  31. Harré, Rom: Varieties of realism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1986.Google Scholar
  32. Humphries, Richard; Rapoo, Thabo; Friedman, Steven: The shape of the country: negotiating regional government. South African Review 7: The Small Miracle (edited by Steven Friedman and Doreen Atkinson). Johannesburg: Raven Press 1994.Google Scholar
  33. Independent Electoral Commission: Republic of South Africa 1994 General Election: Seat Calculation Report — National Assembly Representatives, 1994a.Google Scholar
  34. Independent Electoral Commission: Republic of South Africa 1994 General Election: Provincial results by Province/District, 1994b.Google Scholar
  35. Independent Electoral Commission: The South African Elections of April 1994. Johannesburg 1994c.Google Scholar
  36. Inkatha Freedom Party: Draft constitution for the Republic of South Africa. Unpublished manuscript, 1991.Google Scholar
  37. Inkatha Freedom Party: The nature of the provincial and local systems of government. IFP Submission to Theme Committee Three of the Constitutional Assembly. Unpublished manuscript, 1995a.Google Scholar
  38. Inkatha Freedom Party: A Minimal Institutional Strategy. Unpublished manuscript, 1955b.Google Scholar
  39. Inkatha Freedom Party: The Status of International Mediation in Terms of the Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation. Unpublished manuscript, 1995c.Google Scholar
  40. Johnson, Anthony: Mandela's threat to the IFP could backfire. Cape Times, 3 May, 6 (1995a).Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, Anthony: ANC, IFP talks on mediation. Cape Times, 25 May, 1 (1995b).Google Scholar
  42. Kotzé, Hennie: Federalism in South Africa: an overview, in the political economy of Federalism in South Africa (edited by Hennie Kotzé). Stellenbosch: Centre for International and Comparative Politics 1995.Google Scholar
  43. Lemon, Anthony: Imposed separation: the case of South Africa, shared space, divided space (edited by Michael Chisholm and David M. Smith). London: Unwin Hyman 1990.Google Scholar
  44. Machiavelli, Niccolo: The ruler. London: Bodley Head 1954.Google Scholar
  45. MacLeod, Scott: Rise and resist. Time Magazine, 4 September 1995.Google Scholar
  46. Mattes, Robert: The road to democracy, election '94 South Africa (Andrew Reynolds editor). Cape Town: David Philip 1994.Google Scholar
  47. Moorcroft, Senator E. K.: Debates of the National Assembly, Second Session, First Parliament, Thursday 23 March. Cape Town 1995.Google Scholar
  48. Outhwaite, William: New philosophies of social science. London: MacMillan Education 1987.Google Scholar
  49. Owen, Ken: ANC can't wish away the IFP Problem. Sunday Times, 16 April, 16 (1995).Google Scholar
  50. Pratt, Andy C.: Putting critical realism to work: the practical implications for geographical research. Progress in Human Geography 19(1), 67 (1995).Google Scholar
  51. Qwelane, Jon: ANC honour-bound to keep its word on mediation. Weekend Argus, 30 March 1996.Google Scholar
  52. Republic of South Africa: Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Act 200 of 1993 (1993).Google Scholar
  53. Republic of South Africa: Memorandum of agreement for reconciliation and peace between the Inkatha Freedom Party, KwaZulu Government, the African National Congress, the National Party and the South African Government. 19 April 1994.Google Scholar
  54. Reynolds, Andre: The results, in election '94 South Africa (edited by Andrew Reynolds). Cape Town: David Philip 1994.Google Scholar
  55. Rutsch, Peter: Traditional trauma. Indicator South Africa 12(2), 35–38 (1995).Google Scholar
  56. Sarre, P.: Realism in practice. Area 19, 3–10 (1987).Google Scholar
  57. Sayer, Andrew: Method in social science: a realist approach, second edition. London: Routledge 1992.Google Scholar
  58. Seery, Brendan: ANC rule only solution to KwaZulu-Natal Strife — Mandela, Sunday Weekend Argus. 14 January, p. 4 (1996).Google Scholar
  59. Sidaway, J. D.: Geopolitics, geography, and terrorism in the Middle East. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 12 (1994).Google Scholar
  60. Smith, Peter: Playing with fire: Inkatha's fight for federalism. Indicator South Africa 12(2): 31–34 (1995).Google Scholar
  61. Sole, Sam: Shobashobane: the turning point. Sunday Weekend Argus, 7 January, p. 19 (1996).Google Scholar
  62. Thornton, Robert: Countries, boundaries, enemies, and friends in South Africa. Paper presented at the Second Inter-University Colloquium of the Standing Committee on University Studies on South Africa, Manchester, United Kingdom, 13–16 May 1994.Google Scholar
  63. Unwin, Tim: The place of geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1992.Google Scholar
  64. Werlen, Benno: Society, action, and space: an alternative human geography. London: Routledge 1993.Google Scholar
  65. Williams, D.: Mandela's grip in question. Financial Mail, 5 May, p. 39 (1995).Google Scholar
  66. Wilsem, E. N.; Dubow, Saul; Sharp, John: Introduction: ethnicity, identity, and nationalism in Southern Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies 20(3): 347–353 (1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Griggs Richard 
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Cape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations