Fresenius' Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie

, Volume 328, Issue 4–5, pp 367–369 | Cite as

Determination of gunshot residues (GSR) in biological samples by means of Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

  • W. Lichtenberg
Lectures Methodology and Procedures


In forensic science the determination of distance of shooting is generally performed by evidence of gunshot residues (GSR), especially lead, antimony, barium, and copper. Concerning the determination of shooting distance on the basis of skin, X-ray-fluorescence was exclusively used in the past. In order to increase the detection limits of GSR elements in connection with newly developed ammunitions, samples of test shootings on skin of pigs are analysed by direct Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy. The determination of GSR elements is made from skin samples without any preparations (only lead) and from freeze-dried and pulverised samples (lead and antimony).


Copper Spectroscopy Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry 
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Bestimmung von Schußrückständen in biologischen Proben durch Zeeman-AAS


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Lichtenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.BundeskriminalamtWiesbadenFederal Republic of Germany

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