Physik der kondensierten Materie

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 181–199 | Cite as

Models for the heavy rare earth metals and (rare earth) Fe2 compounds involving 5d and 6s electrons

  • D. M. Eagles


A model involving 5d electrons is introduced to explain the differences between the observed saturation moments in the heavy rare earth metals and those of the corresponding tripositive ions. Atomic 5d states, whose energies are determined by 4f–5d and spin-orbit interactions, are assumed to be broadened into partly overlapping bands with individual widths of the order of 1 eV. The 5d electrons produce negative contributions to the hyperfine fields but positive or near zero contributions to the magnetic moments. It is postulated that the 5d electrons are transferred from the rare earth ions to those of the iron in the (Rare Earth) Fe2 compounds. This leads to increases in the magnetic hyperfine fields because the negative 5d contributions are lost, but in detailed application of the model increases in the 6s contributions also play a large part. Published energy level and wave function analyses for atomic Gd, Tb, Dy, Er and Tm are used in order to apply the theory to these materials.


Wave Function Rare Earth Hyperfine Field Negative Contribution Magnetic Hyperfine Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Elliott, R. J.: In: Magnetism, Vol. IIA. Eds.: G. T. Rado and H. Suhl. Academic Press 1965, p. 385.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kasuya, T.: In: Magnetism, Vol. IIB. Eds.: G. T. Rado and H. Suhl. Academic Press 1966, p. 215.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bleaney, B.: J. appl. Phys.34, 1024 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Koehler, W. C., Child, H. R., Wollan, E. O., Cable, J. W.: J. appl. Phys.34, 1335 (1963); Wilkinson, M.K., Koehler, W.C., Wollan, E.O., Cable, J. W.: J. appl. Phys.32, 48 S (1961); Koehler, W. C., Cable, J. W., Wilkinson, M. K., Wollan, E. O.: Phys. Rev.151, 414 (1966); Cable, J. W., Wollan, E.O., Koehler, W.C., Wilkinson, M.K.: J. appl. Phys.32, 49 S (1961); Koehler, W. C., Cable, J. W., Wollan, E. O., Wilkinson, M. K.: Phys. Rev.126, 1672 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dintelmann, F., Dormann, E., Oppelt, A.: Solid State Commun.8, 1257 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sano, N., Itoh, J.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan32, 95 (1972); Sano, N., Teraoka, M., Shimizu, K., Itoh, J.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan32, 571 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kobayashi, S., Sano, N., Itoh, J.: J. Phys. Soc. Japan21, 1456 (1966).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wagg, A. R., McCausland, M. A. H., Mackenzie, I. S.: Proc. XVIth Congress Ampère, p. 477, Ed.: I. Ursu, Publishing House of the Academy of the Socialist Republic of Romania (1971).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guimarães, A. P.: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Manchester (1971).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Göring, J.: Z. Phys.251, 185 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hüfner, S., Kienle, P., Wiedemann, W., Eicher, H.: Z. Phys.182, 499 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen, R. L.: Phys. Rev.134, A 94 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nigh, H. E., Legvold, S., Spedding, F. H.: Phys. Rev.132, 1092 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hegland, D. E., Legvold, S., Spedding, F. H.: Phys. Rev.131, 158 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jew, T. T., Legvold, S.: US Atomic Energy Comm.5 Rep. IS-867 (1963).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Strandberg, D. L., Legvold, S., Spedding, F. H.: Phys. Rev.127, 2046 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rhyne, J. J., Foner, S., McNiff, Jr., E. J., Doclo, R.: J. appl. Phys.39, 892 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Richards, D. B., Legvold, S.: Phys. Rev.186, 508 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Callahan, W. R.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.53, 695 (1963). — Trees, R. E.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.54, 651 (1964). — Bryant, B. W.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.55, 771 (1965).ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henning, W., Kaindl, G., Kienle, P., Körner, H. J., Kulzer, H., Rehm, K. E., Edelstein, N.: Phys. Lett.28 A, 209 (1968). — Rehm, K. E., Henning, W., Kienle, P.: Phys. Rev. Letters22, 790 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Budnick, J.: Communication cited by Bauminger, E. R., Froindlich, D., Mustachi, A., Nowik, I., Ofer, S., Samuelov, S.: Phys. Lett.30 B, 531 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Atzmony, U., Bauminger, E. R., Ofer, S.: Nucl. Phys.89, 433 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bowden, G. J., Day, R. K.: to be published.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen, R. L., Wernick, J. H.: Phys. Rev.134, B503 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Purwins, H. G.: Phys. Letters31 A, 523 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Purwins, H. G.: Z. Phys.233, 27 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowden, G. J.: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Manchester (1967). — Bowden, G. J., Bunbury, D. St. P., McCausland, M. A. H.: to be published.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bowden, G. J., Bunbury, D. St. P., Guimarães, A. P., Snyder, R. E.: J. Phys. C1, 1376 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kalvius, M., Kienle, P., Eicher, H., Wiedemann, W., Schüler, C.: Z. Phys.172, 231 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowden, G. J., Bunbury, D. St. P., Williams, J. M.: Proc. phys. Soc.91, 612 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mackenzie, I. S., McCausland, M. A. H., Wagg, A. R., Guimarães, A. P., Holden, E., Bailey, S.: Proc. XVIth Congress Ampère. Ed.: I. Ursu, Publishing House of the Academy of the Socialist Republic of Romania (1971), p. 480.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eremin, M. V., Maryakhina, O. I.: Optika Spektrosk.26, 873 (1969). (English translation, Optics and Spectrosc.26, 479 (1970)).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arnoult, C., Gerstenkorn, S.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.56, 177 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Conway, J. G., Worden, E. F.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.61, 704 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Spector, N.: J. Opt. Soc. Amer.56, 341 (1966).ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Camus, P.: J. de Phys.27, 717 (1966).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Blaise, J., Camus, P., Guelachvili, G., Verges, J., Wyart, J. F.: C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris275, B81 (1972).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eagles, D. M.: to be published.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cracknell, A. J.: Adv. Phys.20, 1 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dreyfus, B., Michel, J. C., Thoulouze, D.: Phys. Letters24 A, 457 (1967).ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morrison, J. A., Newsham, D. M. T.: J. Phys. C1, 370 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dreyfus, B., Goodman, B. B., Lacaze, A., Trolliet, G.: C. R. Hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci.253, B 1764 (1961).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eagles, D. M.: Solid State Commun.12, 291 (1973).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Shirley, V. S.: In: Hyperfine Structure and Nuclear Radiations. Eds.: E. Matthias and D. A. Shirley. Amsterdam: North Holland 1968, p. 985.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gschneider, Jr., K. A.: J. less-common Metals25, 405 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elliott, R. J., Stevens, K. W. H.: Proc. R. Soc. A218, 553 (1953).ADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Freeman, A. J., Watson, R. E.: In: Magnetism, Vol. IIA. Eds.: G. T. Rado and H. Suhl. Academic Press 1965, p. 167.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bleaney, B.: In: Quantum Electronics, Proceedings of the Third International Congress, p. 595. Paris 1963. New York: Columbia University Press 1964.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pelzl, J.: Z. Phys.251, 13 (1972).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mann, J. B., Waber, J. T.: to be published. — Coulthard, M. A.: to be published.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Camus, P., Guelachvili, G., Verges, J.: Spectrochim. Acta24 B, 373 (1969).ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sternheimer, R. M.: Phys. Rev.95, 736 (1954).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taylor, K. N. R.: Contemp. Phys.11, 423 (1970).ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wybourne, B. G.: Spectroscopic Properties of the Rare Earths. New York: Interscience 1965.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilson, A. H.: The Theory of Metals, Chapter 6. Cambridge: University Press 1958.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Keeton, S. C., Loucks, T. L.: Phys. Rev.168, 672 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nettel, S. J.: Phys. Rev.121, 425 (1961).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eagles, D. M.: Phys. Rev.145, 645 (1966).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Toyozawa, Y.: Prog. theor. Phys.12, 421 (1954).CrossRefADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eagles, D. M.: Phys. Rev.181, 1278 (1969); Phys. Status Solidi (b)48, 40 (1971).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Eagles
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Applied PhysicsCSIRO, National Standards LaboratoryChippendaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations