, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 163–167 | Cite as

A permanent radiopaque marker technique for the study of pharyngeal swallowing in dogs

  • Sandra S. Kramer
  • James H. Anderson
  • John D. Strandberg
  • Martin W. Donner


We describe a simple technique for permanently implanting steel marker beads in the submucosa of the pharynx of dogs for the study of pharyngeal swallowing. The beads remain stable in location, induce no inflammatory reaction, and do not impede swallowing function. High-speed 35 mm biplane cineradiographic recordings of pharyngeal swallowing with computer analysis of bead positions make it possible to measure and analyze the motion of specific anatomic structures during deglutition.

Key words

Swallowing Animal Multiple radiopaque markers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bosma, J.F. 1956. Myology of the pharynx of cat, dog and monkey with interpretation of the mechanism of swallowing.Ann. Oto. Rhino. Laryngol. 65:981–992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carlsson, E. and E.N.C. Milne 1967. Permanent implantation of endocardial tantalum screws: A new technique for functional studies of the heart in the experimental animal.J. Assoc. Can. Radiol. 19:304–313.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doty, R.W. and J.F. Bosma 1956. An electromyographic analysis of reflex deglutition.J. Neurophysiol. 19:44–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garrison, J.B., W.L. Ebert, R.E. Jenkins. et al. 1982. Measurement of three-dimensional positions and motions of large number of spherical radiopaque markers from biplane cine radiograms.Computers and Biomed. Res. 15:76–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gianturco, C. 1934. Some mechanical factors of gastric physiology.AJR 31:735–744.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ingels, N.B., G.T. Daughters, E.B. Stinson, and E.L. Alderman 1975. Measurement of midwall myocardial dynamics in intact man by radiography of surgically implanted markers.Circulation 52:859–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McDonald, I.G. 1972. Contraction of the hypertrophied left ventricle in man studied by cineradiography of epicardial markers.Am. J. Cardiol. 30:587–594.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shoukas, A.A., K. Sagawa and W.L. Maughan. 1981. Chronic implantation of radiopaque beads in the endocardial, midwall and epicardium.Am. J. Physiol. 241:4104–4107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra S. Kramer
    • 1
  • James H. Anderson
    • 1
  • John D. Strandberg
    • 2
  • Martin W. Donner
    • 1
  1. 1.Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological ScienceThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Division of Comparative MedicineThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations