Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 311–317 | Cite as

Moiré-numerical hybrid analysis of cracks in orthotropic media

  • J. Rhee
  • R. E. Rowlands


The effectiveness of a new photomechanical-numerical hybrid method for evaluating stress intensity factors (SIFs) in orthotropic composites is demonstrated. Reliable results are obtained from few moiré-measured displacements and they originate well away from the crak tip. The method is illustrated for the case of a uniaxially loaded orthotropic glass/epoxy composite containing a central, transverse crack.

Key Words

Moiré orthotropic composites stress analysis hybrid stress analysis fracture mechanics stress intensity factors (SIFs) cracks 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mechanics of Fracture, Vol. I. Methods of Analysis and Solutions of Crack Problems, G. Sih, ed., Noordhoff International Publishing, Leyden, Netherlands (1973).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tong, P., Pian, T.H.H., andLasry, S.J., “A Hybrid-Element Approach to Crack Problems in Plane Elasticity,”Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng.,7 (3),297–308 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tong, P., “A Hybrid Crack Element for Rectilinear Anisotropic Material,”Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng.,11 (2),377–382 (1977).CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerhardt, T.D., “A Hybrid/Finite Element Approach for Stress Analysis of Notched Anisotropic Materials,”ASME J. Applied Mechanics,51,804–810 (Dec. 1984).MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rhee, J., He, S., andRowlands, R.E., “Hybrid Moiré-numerical Stress Analysis Around Cutouts in Loaded Composites,”Experimental Mechanics,36 (4),379–387 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng, Z., Sanford, R.J., andRowlands, R.E., “Determining Stress Intensity Factors From Smoothing Finite-element Representation of Photomechanical Data,”Engineering Fracture Mechanics,40 (3),593–601 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feng, Z., Rowlands, R.E., andSanford, R.J., “Stress Intensity Determination by an Experimental-Numerical Hybrid Technique,”J. Strain Analysis,26 (4),243–251 (1991).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lekhnitskii, S.G., Anisotropic Plates, Tsai, S.W., and Cheron, T. (Trans.), Gordon and Breach, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carrier, G.F., Krook, M., andPearson, C.E., Functions of a Complex Variable, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1966).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rhee, J., “Geometric Discontinuities in Orthotropic Composites,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Engineering Mechanics and Astronautics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1995).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bowie, O.L. andFreese, C.E., “Central Crack in Plane Orthotropic Rectangular Sheet,”Int. J. Fract. Mechanics,8 (1),49–57 (March 1972).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cook, R.D., Malkus, D.S., andPlesha, M.E., Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis, 3rd. ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1989).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu, E.M., “Application of Fracture Mechanics to Anisotropic Plates,” J. Appl. Mechanics, 967–974 (Dec. 1967).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu, E.M., “Fracture Mechanics of Anisotropic Plates,”Composite Materials Workshop, Vol. 1, Progress in Materials Science Series, Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Stamford, Conn (1968).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sih, G.C. andLiebowitz, H., “Mathematical Theories of Brittle Fracture,”Fracture (An Advanced Treatise), Vol. II (Mathematical Fundamentals), H. Liebowitz, ed., Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gandhi, K.R., “Analysis of an Inclined Crack Centrally Placed in an Orthotropic Rectangular Plate,”J. Strain Analysis,7 (3),157–162 (1972).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheong, S.K. andHong, C.S., “Analysis of Cracks Emanating From a Circular Hole in an Orthotropic Plate Under Mixed Mode Deformation,”Engineering Fracture Mechanics,31 (2),237–248 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cheong, S.K. andHong, C.S., “Analysis of Cracks Emanating From a Circular Hole in [On/90 m]s Laminates Under Various Boundary Conditions,”Engineering Fracture Mechanics,32 (6),923–934 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shih, J.S., “Experimental-Numerical Analysis of Bolted Joints in Finite Composites With and Without Inserts,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Engineering Mechanics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1992).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    He, S., “Hybrid Experimental/Numerical Analysis and Finite Element Modeling of Fracture of Aggregate Composite,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Engineering Mechanics and Astronautics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1993).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    He, K.Y. andRowlands, R.E., “Displacement-Based Smoothing Hybrid Finite-Element Representation for Stress Analyzing Perforated Composites,”presented at 14th Nat'l Cong. of Applied Mechanics and published in Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics, Edited by E.E. Gdoutos, Kluwer Academic Press, New York, 619–628 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dally, J.W. andRiley, W.F., Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 3rd edition (1991).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Rhee
    • 1
  • R. E. Rowlands
    • 2
  1. 1.Korea Aerospace Research InstituteTaejonKorea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations