Advertisement

A reevaluation of stimulus overselectivity: Restricted stimulus control or stimulus control hierarchies

  • Warren K. Bickel
  • M. Elizabeth Stella
  • Barbara C. Etzel
Article

Abstract

Stimulus overselectivity, previously described as restricted stimulus control, was examined in preschool children. Twenty-seven subjects, after being trained to respond to a two-component auditory stimulus (S+) and not to respond to a different two-component auditory stimulus (S−), were tested to determine which stimulus elements of the complexes exerted control. Subjects that met the operational definition of overselectivity were found to have exhibited a hierarchy of stimulus control. What differentiated the subjects who would not be labeled “overselective” from those who would be was the placement of S+ and S− elements within the hierarchy, not that one type of subject had restricted stimulus control and another did not. The results indicate that the current conception of stimulus overselectivity may require revision. Treatment and research implications are discussed.

Keywords

School Psychology Preschool Child Auditory Stimulus Operational Definition Stimulus Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey, S. L. (1981). Stimulus overselectivity in learning disabled children.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 239–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baron, M. R. (1965). The stimulus, stimulus control, and stimulus generalization. In S. I. Mostofsky (Ed.),Stimulus generalization (pp. 62–71). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bickel, W. K., & Etzel, B. C. (1982, May).Fact or artifact in overselectivity: A procedural analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Behavior Analysis, Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  4. Bickel, W. K., & Etzel, B. C. (1983).The quantal nature of controlling stimulus-response relations as measured in tests of stimulus generalization. Unpublished manuscript, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  5. Bickel, W. K., Stella, M. E., & Etzel, B. C. (1981, August).Assessment and modification of attending hierarchies of preschool children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  6. Carr, E. G., Binkoff, J. A., Kologinsky, E., & Eddy, M. (1978). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. I. Expressive labelling.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 489–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cook, R. A., Anderson, N., & Rincover, A. (1982). Stimulus overselectivity and stimulus control: Problems and procedures. In R. I. Koegel, A. Rincover, & A. L. Egel (Eds.)Educating and understanding autistic children (pp. 90–105). San Diego: College Hill Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cook, R. A., & Rincover, A. (1978, November).Evaluation and remediation of discrimination learning problems in autistic children. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago.Google Scholar
  9. Etzel, B. C., Bickel, W. K., Stella, M. E., & LaBlanc, J. M. (1982). The assessment of problem-solving skills of atypical children.Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities.1, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Etzel, B. C., & LeBlanc, J. M. (1979). The simplest alternative: The law of parsimony applied to choosing appropriate instructional control and errorless learning for the difficult-to-teach child.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 361–382.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Etzel, B. C., LeBlanc, J. M., Schilmoeller, K. J., & Stella, M. E. (1980). Stimulus control procedures in the education of young children. In S. W. Bijou & R. Ruiz (eds.),Contributions of behavior modification to education (pp. 3–37). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957).Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  13. Hartman, D. P., & Hall, R. V. (1976). The changing criterion design.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 527–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huguenin, W. H., & Touchette, P. E. (1980). Visual attention in retarded adults: Combining stimuli which control incompatible behavior.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 33, 77–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (1980).Strategies and tactics of human behavioral research. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Koegel, R. L., & Wilhelm, H. (1973). Selective responding to the components of multiple visual cues by autistic children.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 15, 442–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuhn, T. S. (1977). The function of measurement in modern physical science. In T. S. Kuhn,The essential tension (pp. 178–224). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Litrownik, A. J., McInnis, E. T., Wetzel-Pritchard, A. M., & Fillipelli, D. L. (1978). Restricted stimulus control and inferred attentional deficits in autistic and retarded children.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 554–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1979). Stimulus overselectivity in autism: A review of research.Psychological Bulletin, 86, 1236–1245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lovaas, O. I., & Schreibman, L. (1971). Stimulus overselectivity in autistic children in a two stimulus situation.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 9, 305–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lovaas, O. I., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. L., & Rehm, R. (1971). Selective responding by autistic children to multiple sensory input.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ray, B. A. (1980, May).The stimulus control operant: What it is, and how it works. Invited paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Dearborn, Michigan.Google Scholar
  23. Reynolds, B. S., Newsom, C. D., & Lovaas, O. I. (1974). Auditory overselectivity in autistic children.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 235–246.Google Scholar
  24. Rincover, A., & Koegel, R. L. (1977). Research on the education of autistic children: Recent advances and future directions. In B. B. Lahey, & A. E. Kazdin (eds.),Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 329–359). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Schneider, H. C., & Salzberg, C. L. (1982). Stimulus overselectivity in a match-to-sample paradigm by severly retarded youth.Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 273–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schreibman, L. (1975). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on discrimination learning in autistic children.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 91–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schreibman, L., Charlop, M. H., & Koegel, R. L. (1982). Teaching autistic children to use extra-stimulus prompts.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.33, 475–491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Schreibman, L., Koegel, R. L., & Craig, M. S., (1977). Reducing stimulus overselectivity in autistic children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychologi, 5, 425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schrover, L. R., & Newsom, C. D. (1976). Overselectivity, developmental level, and overtraining in autistic and normal children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sidman, M. (1979). Remarks.Behaviorism, 7, 123–126.Google Scholar
  31. Sidman, M. (1980). A note on the measurement of conditional discrimination.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 33, 285–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sidman, M., & Stoddard, L. T. (1966). Programming perception of and learning for retarded children. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.),International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 2, pp. 152–208). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Skinner, B. F. (1972). Current trends in experimental psychology. In B. F. Skinner,Cumulative record (pp. 295–313). New York: Appleton-Century-Cofts.Google Scholar
  34. Terrace, H. S., (1963). Discriminative learning with and without “errors”.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 1–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wildemann, D. G., & Holland, J. G. (1972). Control of a continuous response dimension by a continuous stimulus dimension.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18, 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilhelm, H., & Lovaas, O. I. (1976). Stimulus overselectivity: A common feature of autism and mental retardation.American Journal of Mental Retardation, 81, 227–241.Google Scholar
  37. Wilkie, D. M., & Masson, M. E. (1976). Attention in the pigeon. A reevaluation.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 26, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winslow, M. K., & Etzel, B. C. (1972, September).Assessment of preattending behavior: Procedural comparison and acquisition training. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  39. Zeiler, M. D. (1977). Editorial.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 27, 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren K. Bickel
    • 1
  • M. Elizabeth Stella
    • 1
  • Barbara C. Etzel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human DevelopmentUniversity of KansasLawrence

Personalised recommendations