Advertisement

Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 47–60 | Cite as

Electrotactile two-point discrimination as a function of frequency, body site, laterality, and stimulation codes

  • Moshe Solomonow
  • John Lyman
  • Amos Freedy
Article

Abstract

The feasibility of frequency modulated two-point discrimination as a design concept for electrocutaneous sensory substitution display has been studied. Three stimulation techniques were tested on human subjects: spatial stimulus, temporal stimulus, and frequency on frequency stimulus. The frequency on frequency technique yielded the lowest threshold when compared to the temporal and spatial techniques. In addition, some of the characteristic behavior of cutaneous sensation is discussed relating two-point discrimination with frequency, body sites, and stimulation codes. Implications of the results for clinical applications are reviewed.

Keywords

Clinical Application Human Subject Lower Threshold Design Concept Frequency Stimulus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bach-y-Rita, P. Neurophysiological basis of a tactile vision substitution system.IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine Systems 1970,MMS-11, 108–110.Google Scholar
  2. Bach-y-Rita, P., and Collins, C. C. Sensory substitution and limb prostheses. In Gavrilović and Wilson (Eds.),Advances on external control of human extremities. Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1970.Google Scholar
  3. Bekesy, G. V. Interaction of powered sensory stimuli in peripheral nerves.Journal of Applied Physiology 1963,18, 1276.Google Scholar
  4. Bekesy, G. V.Sensory inhibition. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  5. Bliss, J. C. Optical to tactile image conversion aids for the blind.Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation 1967,48.Google Scholar
  6. Eskildsen, M., Collins, C. C., and Bach-y-Rita, P. Simultaneous and successive cutaneous two point threshold for vibration.Psychonomic Science 1969,14, 146–147.Google Scholar
  7. Freedy, A., Solomonow, M., and Lyman, J. A microcomputer based arm prothesis with two channel sensory feedback. InProceedings of the 1975 Conference on Decisions and Control and the 14th Symposium on Adaptive Processes, Houston, Texas, 1975.Google Scholar
  8. Kato, I., Yamakawa, S., Ichikawa, K., and Sano, M. Multifunctional myoelectric hand prosthesis with pressure sensory feedback system. In Gavrilovié and Wilson (Eds.),Advances in external control of human extremities. Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1970.Google Scholar
  9. Prior, R.Study of electrocutaneous parameters relevant to dynamic tactual communication systems. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. Prior, R., Case, P. A., Scott, C. M., and Lyman, J. A myoelectric hand with supplemental sensory feedback. InProceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium 1976,15, 91–103.Google Scholar
  11. Saunders, F. Electrotactile sensory aids for the handicapped. InProceedings of the 4th Annual Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society, Los Angeles, California, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Saunders, F., and Collins, C. C. Electrical stimulation of the sense of touch.The Journal of Biomedical Systems 1971,2.Google Scholar
  13. Solomonow, M., Freedy, A., and Lyman, J. Frequency modulated cutaneous orientation feedback from artificial limbs. InProceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Manual Control, NASA-Ames, Moffett Field, California, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. Weinstein, S. Intensive and extensive aspects of tactile sensitivity as a function of body part, sex, and laterality. In D. R. Kenshalo (Ed.),The skin senses. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Press, Inc. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moshe Solomonow
    • 1
  • John Lyman
    • 1
  • Amos Freedy
    • 1
  1. 1.Biotechnology LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations