Hyperfine Interactions

, 49:439 | Cite as

Observation of localized d states in metals

  • D. Riegel
Invited Papers, Concluding Remarks


By application of the perturbed γ-ray distribution method combined with heavy-ion reactions and recoil implantation techniques, we have found an experimental was of producing and investigating localized 3d and 4d states in metals. 3d and 4d ions in sp metal hosts, in particular in alkali metals, exhibit the phenomena of large orbital magnetism, extremely small spin fluctuation rates, well defined ionic ground states, mixed valence, and crystal field splittings smaller than theLS coupling. These results upset long standing assumptions about the nature of d states in metals and their magnetic instabilities due to interaction of d orbitals with conduction electrons. If magnetic, the d states of 3d and 4d ions cannot be described by one electron approaches based on Anderson type models but required an analysis based on ionic configurations. The tendencies towards reduced magnetism can be well reproduced by increasing spin fluctuations which gives new insight into antiferromagnetic d-sp exchanges and the Kondo problem for d ions in sp metals. Localized ionic d states, large orbital effects, small crystal fields, and mixed valence-these new phenomena for d ions in sp metals exhibit common basic features with stable and unstable 4f and 5f systems but reflect qualitative differences to the spin dominated magnetism of 3d ions in Cu, Ag, Au and in d metal hosts.


Crystal Field Spin Fluctuation Crystal Field Splitting Orbital Magnetism Standing Assumption 
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Copyright information

© J.C. Baltzer A.G. Scientific Publishing Company 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Riegel
    • 1
  1. 1.Hahn-Meitner-Institut, BerlinBereich StrahlenchemieBerlin 39Germany

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