Adhesion of ice to a flexible substrate
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The adhesion of ice to a flexible substrate, polyurethane elastomer, has been studied using the Andrews-Stevenson test procedure which involves the pressurization to failure of an enclosed interfacial crack. The temperature, rate of pressurization and substrate layer thickness were varied and the failure energy (critical energy release rate) determined. If energy release from the flexible substrate is ignored an apparent failure energy is obtained which first increases and then decreases as the layer thickness rises from zero to 4 mm. This thickness effect results in a large variation in the pressure needed to produce failure, and is thus important in relation to the ice-release properties of the substrate. It is shown that the thickness effect can be explained quantitatively in terms of the energy release from the flexible substrate, which, in turn, depends on its visco-elastic properties. The true failure energy is derived and is also found to correlate with the visco-elastic response of the rubber. Finally, these ideas are used to explain the effects of rate and temperature on the conditions of failure.
KeywordsPolymer Rubber Layer Thickness Release Rate Polyurethane
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