Computers and the Humanities

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 309–319 | Cite as

A system for interactive encoding of music scores under computer control

  • Gary Wittlich
  • Donald Byrd
  • Rosalee Nerheim


Computational Linguistic Computer Control Music Score Interactive Encode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    For relevant writings, see Stefan M. Kostka,A Bibliography of Computer Applications in Music. Hackensack, NJ: Joseph Boonin, Inc., 1974; and Marc Battier and Jacques Arveiller,Musique et Informatique: une Bibliographie Indexe. Paris: University of Paris, 1976. See also the article by Harry Lincoln, “Use of the Computer in Music Research: A Short Report on Accomplishments, Limitations, and Future Needs,”Computers and the Humanities, 8, 5–6 (1974), 285–289.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Optical encoding devices have been employed to create a digital copy of a score, i.e., a matrix of data points representing the score. The matrix is then processed to determine the specific symbols and their location, and these symbols are converted to computer-usable code. Because of the complexity of music scores, particularly their two-dimensional nature, optical encoding of scores will demand much more experimentation and probably the development of relatively low-cost special purpose equipment before it will be practical. For reports of experiments in optical encoding of music scores, see David S. Prerau, “DO-RE-MI: A Program That Recognizes Music Notation,”Computers and the Humanities, 9, 1 (1975), 25–29; and Gary Wittlich et al., “Non-Physics Measurements on the PEPR System: Seismograms and Music Scores,” inReport to the Oxford Conference on Computer Scanning. Oxford: Nuclear Physics Laboratory (1974), 487–489.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jerome Wenker, “A Computer-Oriented Notation Including Ethnomusicological Symbols,” inMusicology and the Computer, ed. Barry S. Brook. New York: CUNY Press (1970), 91–129, and Idem, “MUSTRAN II: A Foundation for Computational Musicology,” inComputers in the Humanities, ed. L. Mitchell. Edinburgh: University Press (1974), 267–280.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raymond Erickson,DARMS: A Reference Manual (unpublished manuscript) June 1976.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The Indiana University Computer Music System is described in detail in an article by Donald Byrd, “An Integrated Computer Music Software System,”Computer Music Journal 1/2 (April, 1977), 55–60. For a description of the music-printing facility, see Byrd's article, “A System for Music Printing by Computer,”Computers and the Humanities 8, 3 (1974), 161–172.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    For references to other experiments with rhythmic translation, see Harry Lincoln, “Use of the Computer in Music Research,” ibid., 286, and H. C. Longuel-Higgins, “Perception of Melodies,”Nature, 286 (October 1976), 646–653.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    For a discussion of this system, see the article by Arthur Mendel, “Some Preliminary Attempts at Computer-Assisted Style Analysis in Music,”Computers and the Humanities, 4, 1 (1969), 41–52, and the article by Mendel and Thomas Hall, “Princeton Computer Tools for Musical Research,”Informatique et Sciences Humaine, 19 (1973).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Csébfalvy, M. Havass, P. Járdányi, and L. Vargyas, “Systematization of Tunes by Computers,”Studia Musicologia 7 (1965), 253–57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prentiss H. Knowlton, “Interactive Communication and Display of Keyboard Music.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1971.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    This system was observed by one of the authors (Wittlich) in a visit to M.I.T. in 1974.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Information on the PCS-500 is available from Music Reprographics, Ltd., 71 West Main Street, Oyster Bay, N.Y. 11771.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Troxel's Musecom II is described briefly in “Input-Output,” inHigh Fidelity 27/8 (August 1977), 106–107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary Wittlich
    • 1
  • Donald Byrd
  • Rosalee Nerheim
  1. 1.School of Music at Indiana UniversityUSA

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