Computers and the Humanities

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 265–278 | Cite as

The new political history: Progress and prospects

  • Philip R. Vandermeer
Article

Keywords

Computational Linguistic Political History 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    See, for example, Harry S. Stout, “Culture, Structure, and the ‘New’ History: A Critique and an Agenda,”Computers and the Humanities, 9 (July 1975), 213–30; Robert P. Swierenga, “Computers and American History: The Impact of the ‘New’ Generation,”Journal of American History, 60 (March 1974), 1045–70; Swierenga, “Computers and Comparative History,”Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 5 (Autumn 1974), 267–88; Richard Jensen, “Quantitative American Studies: The State of the Art,”American Quarterly, 26 (August 1974), 225–40; Joel H. Silbey, “Clio and Computers: Moving Into Phase II, 1970–1972,”Computers and the Humanities, 7 (November 1972), 67–79; and Allan G. Bogue, “United States: The ‘New’ Political History,”Journal of Contemporary History, 3 (January 1968), 5–27.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    To cite only two of the responses, see Herbert G. Gutman,Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of “Time on the Cross” (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975); and Paul David et al.,Reckoning with Slavery: A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richard Jensen ably summarizes the development of election analysis from the nineteenth century to the 1940s in “American Election Analysis: A Case History of Methodological Innovation and Diffusion,” in Seymour Martin Lipset, ed.,Politics and the Social Sciences (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 226–43.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See, for example, J. Morgan Kousser, “Post-Reconstruction Suffrage Restriction in Tennessee: A New Look at the V. O. Key Thesis,”Political Science Quarterly, 88 (December 1973), 655–83; Margaret Thompson Echols and Austin Ranney, “The Impact of Interparty Competition Reconsidered: The Case of Florida,”Journal of Politics, 38 (February 1976), 142–52; and Raymond Tatalovich, “‘Friends and Neighbors’ Voting: Mississippi,”Journal of Politics, 37 (August 1975), 807–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    “A Theory of Critical Elections,”Journal of Politics, 17 (February 1955), 3–18; “Secular Realignment and the Party System,” ibid., 21 (May 1959), 198–210; and Key and Frank Munger, “Social Determinism and Electoral Decision: The Case of Indiana,” in Eugene Burdick and Arthur J. Brodbeck, eds.,American Voting Behavior (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1959), 281–99.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    William L. Shade proposes three general types and a total of seven subtypes inSocial Change and the Electoral Process, University of Florida Social Science Monograph No. 49 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1973). Essays outlining other typologies are reprinted in Jerome M. Clubb and Howard W. Allen, eds.,Electoral Change and Stability in American Political History (New York: Free Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Some analyses have simply ignored the conflict, sometimes substituting the word “crucial.” See, for example,Crucial American Elections, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 99 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1973).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    This point was made initially in a 1960 article by Duncan MacRae, Jr., and James A. Meldrum on “Critical Elections in Illinois, 1888–1958,” which, along with other related works, is in Clubb and Allen, eds.,Electoral Change. For a fuller view see Walter Dean Burnham,Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics (New York: W. W. Norton, 1970) and James L. Sundquist,Dynamics of the Party System (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    For the latter period consult Bernard Sternsher's fine summary of recent literature: “The Emergence of the New Deal Party System: A Problem in Historical Analysis of Voter Behavior,”Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 6 (Summer 1975), 127–49. Also see Allan J. Lichtman, “Critical Election Theory and the Reality of American Presidential Politics, 1916–1940,”American Historical Review, 81 (April 1975), 79–117. On the earlier period see Burnham,Critical Elections, 14–17, 36–38; Sundquist,Party System, 63–91; David E. Meerse, “The Northern Democratic Party and the Congressional Elections of 1858,”Civil War History, 19 (June 1973), 119–27; and Gerald M. Pomper,Elections in America: Control and Influence in Democratic Politics (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1968), 113–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Critical Elections, 24. Sternsher discusses the studies which suggest different timing for the 1928–1936 period in “New Deal Party System.” Ray M. Shortridge shows two different state patterns in “The Voter Realignment in the Midwest in the 1850s,”American Politics Quarterly, 4 (April 1976), 193–222.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katherine Brown, a lone dissenter, summarizes in terms of her dissent the consensus on the seventeenth century in “The Controversy over the Franchise in Puritan Massachusetts, 1954 to 1974,”William and Mary Quarterly, 33 (April 1976), 212–41. For later periods see Chilton Williamson,American Suffrage from Property to Democracy, 1760–1860 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960); Richard P. McCormick,The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966); and Burnham,Critical Elections.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ray Myles Shortridge, “An Assessment of the Frontier's Influence on Voter Turnout,”Agricultural History, 50 (July 1976), 445–59 concludes that turnout was not higher on the frontier between 1840 and 1870. Warren E. Stickle argues that in the 1960s turnout was higher among Indiana ruralites than among urban dwellers: “Ruralite and Farmer in Indiana: Independent, Sporadic Voter and Country Bumpkin?”Agricultural History, 48 (October 1974), 543–70. C. Richard Hofstetter argues the positive effect of competition on turnout in “Inter-Party Competition and Electoral Turnout: The Case of Indiana,”American Journal of Political Science, 17 (May 1973), 351–66, while Virginia Gray disagrees with that theory in “A Note on Competition and Turnout in the American States,”Journal of Politics, 38 (February 1976), 153–58.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restrictions and the Establishment of the One-Party South, 1880–1910 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    The most recent statements are Burnham, “Theory and Voting Research: Some Reflections on Converse's ‘Change in the American Electorate’,”American Political Science Review, 68 (September 1974), 1002–23, plus the comments by Rusk and Philip Converse, 1024–49, and Burnham's “Rejoinder,” 1050–57. Also consult William H. Flanigan,Political Behavior of the American Electorate (2nd ed., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1972); Walter DeVries and V. Lance Tarrance,The Ticket-Splitter: A New Force in American Politics (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1972); Paul R. Abramson, “Generational Change and the Decline of Party Identification in America: 1952–1974,”American Political Science Review, 70 (June 1976), 469–78; and Milton C. Cummings,Congressmen and the Electorate: Elections for the U.S. House and the President, 1920–1964 (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    In Indiana, for example, literacy and poll tax laws were considered several times, and a poll tax was passed in 1911, only to be voided by the state Supreme Court. Charles Kettleborough,Constitution Making In Indiana, vol. 2:1851–1916 (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Commission, 1916), 365–370, 387–397.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pleas for greater sophistication have come from Walter Dean Burnham, “Quantitative History: Beyond the Correlation Coefficient: A Review Essay,”Historical Methods Newsletter, 4 (March 1971), 62–66; and J. Morgan Kousser, “The ‘New Political History’: A Methodological Critique,”Reviews in American History, 4 (March 1976), 1–14.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    See, for example, Roger L. Hart,Redeemers, Bourbons & Populists: Tennessee, 1870–1896 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1975) and William G. Shade,Banks and No Banks: The Money Issue in Western Politics, 1832–1865 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1972). Two studies which calculate turnout are Kousser,Shaping of Southern Politics and Kevin Sweeney, “Rum, Romanism, Representation, and Reform: Coalition Politics in Massachusetts, 1847–1853,”Civil War History, 22 (June 1976), 116–37. Also consult the series of articles on the uses of regression analysis appearing inJournal of Interdisciplinary History, 4 (1973–1974).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    For an excellent essay on developing a voting behavior model see J. Rogers Hollingsworth, “Problems in the Study of Popular Voting Behavior,” in Lee Benson et al.,American Political Behavior: Essays and Readings (New York: Harper and Row, 1974), 1–24.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee Benson,The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961); Samuel P. Hays, “The Social Analysis of American Political History, 1880–1920,”Political Science Quarterly, 80 (September 1965), 373–94: Paul Kleppner,The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics, 1850–1900 (New York: Free Press, 1970); Richard J. Jensen,The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–96 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971); Ronald P. Formisano,The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827–1861 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971). Two essays which survey the growth and findings of ethnocultural histories are Robert P. Swierenga, “Ethnocultural Political Analysis: A New Approach to American Ethnic Studies,”Journal of American Studies, 5 (April 1971), 59–79; and Samuel T. McSeveney, “Ethnic Groups, Ethnic Conflicts, and Recent Quantitative Research in American Political History,”International Migration Review, 7 (Spring 1973), 14–33.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    One study showing special sensitivity to religion is Frederick C. Luebke,Bonds of Loyalty: German-Americans and World War I (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1974). Other works include John L. Shover, “Ethnicity and Religion in Philadelphia Politics, 1924–1940,”American Quarterly, 25 (December 1973), 499–515; Roger E. Wyman, “Middle-Class Voters and Progressive Reform: The Conflict of Class and Culture,”American Political Science Review, 68 (June 1974), 488–504; D. L. A. Hackett, “Slavery, Ethnicity, and Sugar: An Analysis of Voting Behavior in Louisiana, 1828–1844,”Louisiana Studies, 13 (Summer 1974), 73–118; and Michael Holt,Forging a Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, 1848–1860 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hart,Redeemers; Kousser,Shaping of Southern Politics; Peter H. Argersinger,Populism and Politics: William Alfred Peffer and the People's Party (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974); James Edward Wright,The Politics of Populism: Dissent in Colorado (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974); and Stanley B. Parsons,The Populist Context: Rural Versus Urban Power on a Great Plains Frontier (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Richard L. McCormick, “Ethno-Cultural Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century American Voting Behavior,”Political Science Quarterly, 89 (June 1974), 351–78; James E. Wright, “The Ethnocultural Model of Voting,” in Allan G. Bogue, ed.,Emerging Theoretical Models in Social and Political History (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1973), 35–56; and Kousser, “New Political History.” Also see Eric Foner's indignant criticism in “The Causes of the Civil War: Recent Interpretations and New Directions,”Civil War History, 20 (September 1974), 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    See, for example, Richard Jensen, “Aggregate Versus Survey Data: The Psephologist's Puzzle,” paper presented to the Social Science History Association, Philadelphia, October 30, 1976. Paul Kleppner, in “Beyond the ‘New Political History’: A Review Essay,”Historical Methods Newsletter, 6 (December 1972), 17–26, defends the use of homogeneous units and correlation coefficients, but also presents his own methodological criticisms.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    The defensive nature of liturgicals is shown for Missouri Synod Lutherans by Heinrich H. Maurer, “Studies in the Sociology of Religion. V. The Fellowship Law of a Fundamentalist Group. The Missouri Synod,”American Journal of Sociology, 31 (July 1925), 39–57. For the Church of Christ see David Edwin Harrell, Jr.,A Social History of the Disciples of Christ, vol. 2:The Social Sources of Division in the Disciples of Christ, 1865–1900 (Atlanta: Publishing Systems, 1973), especially p. 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    For a summary, consult the discussion of and data from the Census ofReligious Bodies: 1906 contained in H. K. Carroll,The Religious Forces of the United States, rev. ed. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912), lvi-lix.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    One such effort, which also supports the primary importance of religion and ethnicity, is Kevin Clancy and Lee Benson, “America the Fragmented: An Exploration of the Effects of Class, Ethnicity and Religion on Political and Social Attitudes and Behavior,” paper presented to the Social Science History Association, Philadelphia, October 30, 1976.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    My own attempt to deal with some of these problems is “A Social Analysis of Indiana Politics and Politicians, 1896–1920” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1976).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Actually, the broader term for this category is “collegial bodies,” which also includes roll-call voting in conventions and courts. Since the number of such studies is relatively small, however, this discussion will not deal specifically with them. For examples, see John D. Sprague,Voting Patterns of the United States Supreme Court: Cases in Federalism, 1889–1959 (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968); and Frank Munger and James Blackhurst, “Factionalism in the National Conventions, 1940–1964: An Analysis of Ideological Consistency in State Delegation Voting,”Journal of Politics, 27 (May 1965), 375–94.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    This included Joel H. Silbey,The Shrine of Party: Congressional Voting Behavior, 1840–1852 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967); David Donald,The Politics of Reconstruction, 1863–1867 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965); Allan G. Bogue, “Bloc and Party in the United States Senate: 1861–1863,”Civil War History, 13 (September 1967), 221–41; and Thomas B. Alexander,Sectional Stress and Party Strength: A Study of Roll-Call Voting Returns in the United States House of Representatives, 1836–1860 (Nashville: University of Tennessee Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Such studies are: Michael Les Benedict,A Compromise of Principle: Congressional Republicans and Reconstruction, 1863–1869 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974); Gerald William Wolff, “A Scalogram Analysis of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 and Related Roll Calls,”Computers and the Humanities, 8 (March 1974), 71–83; Rudolph M. Bell,Party and Faction in American Politics: The House of Representatives, 1789–1801 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1973); Ronald J. Hatzenbuehler, “Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812,”William and Mary Quarterly, 29 (July 1972), 367–90; Allan G. Bogue and Mark Paul Marlaire, “Of Mess and Men: The Boarding House and Congressional Voting, 1821–1842,”American Journal of Political Science, 19 (May 1975), 207–30; William G. Shade et al., “Partisanship in the United States Senate: 1869–1901,”Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 4 (Autumn 1973), 185–206; David W. Brady,Congressional Voting in a Partisan Era: A Study of the McKinley Houses and a Comparison to the Modern House of Representatives (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1973); in addition, Jerome M. Clubb and Santa Traugott, “Partisan Cleavage and Cohesion in the House of Representatives, 1861–1974,”Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 7 (Winter 1977), 375–402.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robert Zemsky,Merchants, Farmers, and River Gods: An Essay on Eighteenth-Century American Politics (Boston: Gambit, 1971); Jackson Turner Main,Political Parties Before the Constitution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973); Herbert Ershkowitz and William G. Shade, “Consensus or Conflict? Political Behavior in the State Legislature During the Jacksonian Era,”Journal of American History, 58 (December 1971), 591–621; Rodney O. Davis, “Partisanship in Jacksonian State Politics: Party Divisions in the Illinois Legislature, 1834–1841,” in Robert P. Swierenga, ed.,Quantification in American History: Theory and Research (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 149–62; Wright,Politics of Populism; Hart,Redeemers; and Parsons,Populist Context.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Glenn M. Linden, “‘Radicals’ and Economic Policies: The Senate, 1861–1873,”Journal of Southern History, 32 (May 1966), 189–99; Bogue, “Radical Voting Dimension”; Benedict,Compromise of Principle; H. James Henderson,Party Politics in the Continental Congress (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974); Mary P. Ryan, “Party Formation in the United States Congress, 1789 to 1796: A Quantitative Analysis,”William and Mary Quarterly, 28 (October 1971), 523–42; Bell,Party and Faction; and Main,Political Parties.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    For example, Ershkowitz and Shade, “Consensus or Conflict?”; and Wright,Politics of Populism. Peter Levine, “State Legislative Parties in the Jacksonian Era: New Jersey, 1829–1844,”Journal of American History, 62 (December 1975), 591–608 attempts to show that both arguments were valid.Google Scholar
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    For example, Silbey,Shrine of Party; Shade et al., “Partisanship in the Senate”; and Clubb and Traugott, “Partisan Cleavage and Cohesion in the House.”Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    See, for example, the general critique and especially the comments on Guttman scaling by Robert Zemsky in “American Legislative Behavior,” in Bogue, ed.,Emerging Theoretical Models, 57–76. Compare this with Allan G. Bogue's defense and use of Guttman scaling in “The Radical Voting Dimension in the U.S. Senate During the Civil War,”Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 3 (Winter 1973), 449–74. A very useful methodological critique of several recent works in Ballard Campbell, “The State Legislature in American History: A Review Essay,”Historical Methods Newsletter, 9 (September 1976), 185–94.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    David J. Rothman,Politics and Power: The United States Senate, 1869–1901 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966); and David W. Brady and Phillip Althoff, “Party Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1890–1910: Elements of a Responsible Party System,”Journal of Politics, 36 (August 1974), 753–75.Google Scholar
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    Shade et al., “Partisanship in the Senate.”Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clubb and Traugott, “Partisan Cleavage and Cohesion in the House.”Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Compromise of Principle, 26.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    See Bogue's “Radical Voting Dimension.”Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    See Campbell's suggestion of four criteria for evaluating roll-call analyses in “State Legislature,” p. 186.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    It is also an old technique. One of the first such studies was Charles Beard'sAn Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (New York: Macmillan, 1913). Cf. Richard D. Brown, “The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View,”William and Mary Quarterly, 33 (July 1976), 465–80. See also Lewis J. Edinger and Donald D. Searing, “Social Background in Elite Analysis: A Methodological Inquiry,”American Political Science Review, 61 (June 1967), 428–45.Google Scholar
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    See, for example, Allan G. Bogue et al., “Members of the House of Representatives and the Process of Modernization, 1789–1960.”Journal of American History, 63 (September 1976), 275–302; Ballard Crooker Campbell, “Ethnicity and the 1893 Wisconsin Assembly,”Journal of American History, 62 (June 1975), 74–94; Thomas Alexander and Richard E. Beringer,The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress: A Study of the Influences of Member Characteristics on Legislative Voting Behavior 1861–1865 (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1972); Main,Political Parties; and Rothman,Politics and Power.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    William L. Barney,The Secessionist Impulse: Alabama and Mississippi in 1860 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974); Jean H. Baker,The Politics of Continuity: Maryland Political Parties From 1858 to 1870 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973); Robert Sherman Laforte,Leaders of Reform: Progressive Republicans in Kansas, 1900–1916 (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1974); and Bruce M. Stave,The New Deal and the Last Hurrah: Pittsburgh Machine Politics (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1970).Google Scholar
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    Leonard Tabachnik, “Political Patronage and Ethnic Groups: Foreign-born in the United States Customhouse Service, 1821–1861,”Civil War History, 17 (September 1971), 222–31; Kenneth Prewitt and William McAllister, “Changes in the American Executive Elite—1930–1970,” in Heinz Eulau and Moshe M. Czudnowski, eds.,Elite Recruitment in Democratic Politics: Comparative Studies Across Nations (New York: Halsted Press, 1976); Ralph A. Wooster,Politicians, Planters and Plain Folk: Courthouse and Statehouse in the Upper South, 1850–1860 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1975); and Kermit L. Hall, “Social Backgrounds and Judicial Recruitment: A Nineteenth Century Perspective on the Lower Federal Judiciary,”Western Political Quarterly, 29 (June 1976), 243–57.Google Scholar
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    Edward M. Cook, Jr.,The Fathers of the Towns: Leadership and Community Structure in Eighteenth-Century New England (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976); Gerald W. McFarland,Mugwumps, Morals, and Politics, 1884–1920 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1975); and Hart,Reedemers.Google Scholar
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    To mention only two: William T. Kerr, Jr., “The Progressives of Washington, 1910–12,”Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 55 (January 1964), 16–27; and E. Daniel Potts, “The Progressive Profile in Iowa,”Mid-America, 47 (October 1965), 257–68.Google Scholar
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    See Malcolm E. Jewell and Samuel C. Patterson,The Legislative Process in the United States (New York: Random House, 1966), 101–22. Richard G. Miller provides a useful table showing the rise of mean wealth for both Republican and Federalist candidates over a range of office categories.Philadelphia—The Federalist City: A Study of Urban Politics, 1789–1801 (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1976), 18.Google Scholar
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    For examples of such an error see Laforte,Leaders of Reform; Baker,Politics of Continuity; and O. Gene Clanton,Kansas Populism: Ideas and Men (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1969).Google Scholar
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    Barney,Secessionist Impulse, 70; also 65–76.Google Scholar
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    Heinz Eulau et al., “Career Perspectives of American State Legislators,” in Dwaine Marvick, ed.,Political Decision Makers, International Yearbook of Political Behavior Research, Vol. 2 (New York: Free Press, 1961), 219–20, 259. Also, see Eulau and Czudnowski, eds.,Elite Recruitment; and Lester G. Seligman et al.,Patterns of Recruitment: A State Chooses Its Lawmakers (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1974).Google Scholar
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    Parsons,Populist Context; and Clanton,Kansas Populism.Google Scholar
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    Considerations of this factor would have been very useful for Barney,Secessionist Impulse, passism; and Hart,Redeemers, 125–31.Google Scholar
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    Bogue et al., “Members of the House,” is based on this data collection. See also Rothman,Politics and Power; James Sterling Young,The Washington Community, 1800–1828 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966); and Donald R. Matthews,U.S. Senators and Their World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960).Google Scholar
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    Seligman et al.,Patterns of Recruitment, 5. Also consult Chong Lim Kim, Justin Green, and Samuel C. Patterson, “Partisanship in the Recruitment and Performance of American State Legislators,” in Eulau and Czudnowski, eds.,Elite Recruitment, 79–104, which cites much of the relevant literature.Google Scholar
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    See Jewell and Patterson,Legislative Process, 118–21; David Ray, Voluntary Retirement and Electoral Defeat in Eight State Legislatures,”Journal of Politics, 38 (May 1976), 426–33; David Ray, “Membership Stability in Three State Legislatures: 1893–1969,”American Political Science Review, 68 (March 1974), 106–12; and James B. Kesller, ed.,Empirical Studies of Indiana Politics: Studies of Legislative Behavior (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970). For the U.S. Congress, see the sources in note 54, as well as Nelson W. Polsby, “The Institutionalization of the U.S. House of Representatives,”American Political Science Review, 62 (March 1968), 144–68.Google Scholar
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    Some of these factors are considered by David W. Brady, “Congressional Leadership and Party Voting in the McKinley Era: Comparison to the Modern House,”Midwest Journal of Political Science, 16 (August 1972), 439–59; Brady,Congressional Voting; and Brady and Althoff, “Party Voting in the U.S. House.”Google Scholar
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    One exception is Zemsky,Merchants, Farmers, and River Gods, a good study of the colonial Massachusetts legislature. See also Douglas C. Chaffey, “The Institutionalization of State Legislatures: A Comparative Study,”Western Political Quarterly, 23 (March 1970), 180–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Campbell, “State Legislature,” 189. As an example of the use of this false assumption see John D. Buenker,Urban Liberalism and Progressive Reform (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974).Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Pergamon Press 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip R. Vandermeer
    • 1
  1. 1.Purdue UniversityUSA

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