Environmental Management

, 18:831 | Cite as

Acidification and recreational fisheries in Finland: A mail survey of potential impacts

  • Antti Lappalainen
  • Mikael Hildén
  • Kalevi Leinonen
Profile

Abstract

In Finland, small forest lakes and rivers in the northern part of the country are more sensitive to acidic deposition than other Finnish waters. In some lakes, acid-sensitive fish populations have declined. A nationwide survey of fishers showed that, at present, the number of fishers whose primary fishing waters are affected by airborne acidification is negligible compared to the estimated total number of adult fishers (1.1 million). The proportion of the fishers who mainly fish in water types sensitive to airborne acidification is considerable, 3% for the rivers in northern Finland and 21% for small forest lakes. There is general concern among fishers about the effects of acidification. Changes in the fishing waters are attributed to acidification by 5–10% of the fishers, although in most cases other information about the fishing waters rules out acidification as an explanation for the changes. Among those who fish in sensitive types of waters, a willingness to mitigate potential damages was reported by approximately one third of all fishers. Clear differences in the willingness to rehabilitate the fishery were observed in relation to the importance of fishing as a spare time activity and the distance between the fishing waters and a home or summer cottage.

Key words

Acidification Fishery Recreational fishing Mail survey 

Literature cited

  1. Alasaarela, E., and P. Heinonen. 1984. Alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand in some Finnish rivers during the periods 1911–1931 and 1962–1972.Vesientutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisuja 57:3–13.Google Scholar
  2. Alasaarela, E., J. Havu, K. Heikkinen, and K. Weppling. 1990. Neutralization of acidified watercourses. Pages 1117–1125in P. Kauppi, P. Anttila, and K. Kenttämies (eds.), Acidification in Finland. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, J.P., and C. L. Schoefield. 1985. Acidification impacts on fish populations: A review. Pages 183–221in D. D. Adams and W. P. Page (eds.), Acid deposition. Environmental, Economic and Policy Issues. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bryan, H. 1979. Conflict in the great outdoors: Toward understanding and managing for diverse sportman preferences. Bureau of Public Administration, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama. Sociological Studies 4, 98 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Fedler, A. J., and R. B. Ditton. 1986. A framework for understanding the consumptive orientation of recreational fishermen.Environmental Management 10:221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forsius, M. 1992. Acidification of lakes in Finland: Regional estimates of lake chemistry and critical loads. National Board of Waters and the Environment. Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute No. 10, 37 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Hanemann, W. M. 1984. Entropy as a measure of consensus in the evaluation of recreation site quality.Journal of Environmental Management 18:241–251.Google Scholar
  8. Hanna, J. E. 1986. Data availability and requirements for acid rain impact evaluation. Pages 95–99in R. V. Huntley and R. Z. Rivers (eds.), Proceedings of the acid rain evaluation seminar. National Printers Limited, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  9. Henriksen, A., L. Lien, B. O. Rosseland, T. S. Traaen, and I. S. Sevaldrud. 1989. Lake acidification in Norway: Present and predicted status.Ambio 18:314–321.Google Scholar
  10. Hildén, M., T. Hakaste, P. Korhonen, and E. Rahikainen. 1991. An analysis of the fisheries interests in the middle reach of the River Kokemäenjoki and the River Loimijoki (in Finnish, with English abstract). Publications of the Water and Environment Administration—Series A 74, 99 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Jacob, G. R., and R. Schreyer. 1980. Conflict in outdoor recreation: A theoretical perspective.Journal of Leisure Research 12:368–380.Google Scholar
  12. Järvenpää, T., and K. Leinonen. 1991. The present crayfish fishery and its future (in Finnish).Riista-ja kalataouden tutkimuslaitos, kalantutkimusosasto. Kalatutkimuksia. 40:87–95.Google Scholar
  13. Kämäri, J., M. Forsius, P. Kortelainen, J. Mannio, and M. Verta. 1991. Finnish lake survey: Present status of acidification.Ambio 20:23–27.Google Scholar
  14. Kinnunen, K. 1992. Acidification of the waters in northern Fennoscandia and the Kola Peninsula. Pages 123–132in E. Tikkanen, M. Varmola, and T. Katermaa (eds.), Extended abstracts of the symposium on the state of the environment and environmental monitoring in northern Fennoscandia and the Kola Peninsula. 6–8 October 1992. Rovaniemi, Finland.Google Scholar
  15. Lappalainen, A. 1992. The attitudes towards emission control and liming of acidified lakes in Finland (in Finnish). Riista- ja kalatalouden tutkimuslaitos, kalantutkimusosasto,Kalatutkimuksia 54:102–126.Google Scholar
  16. Leinonen, K., and M. Hildén. 1991. Choosing the fishing site—factors affecting the decisions of recreational fishermen. ICES C.M. 1991;7:20. La Rochelle, France, 11 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Leinonen, K., H. Lehtonen, and M. Hildén. 1991. Recreational and subsistence fishing in Finland in 1986 (in Finnish, with English abstract).Suomen Kalatalous 58:13–17.Google Scholar
  18. Leivestad, H., G. Hendrey, I. P. Muniz, and E. Snekvik. 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on freshwater organisms. Pages 87–111in F. H. Brakke (eds.), Effects of acid precipitation on forest and freshwater ecosystems in Norway. SNSF-Project, Res Rep. Oslo-Ås 6.Google Scholar
  19. Monitor, 1991. Acidification and liming of Swedish freshwaters. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Helsingborg, Schmidts Boktryckeri AB, 1991, 144 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Navrud, S. 1991. The economic value of recreational fishing for Atlantic salmon—the Norwegian experience. Paper presented at the international workshop on licensed recreational fishing in watercourses of the Kola Peninsula. 22–26 April 1991. Murmansk, USSR, 9 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Raatikainen, M., and E. Kuusisto. 1990. The number, area and volume of the lakes in Finland (in Finnish, with English abstract).Terra 102:97–110.Google Scholar
  22. Rask, M., and P. Tuunainen. 1990. Acid-induced changes in fish populations of small Finnish lakes. Pages 911–927in P. Kauppi, P. Anttila, and K. Kenttämies (eds.), Acidification in Finland. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  23. SAS Institute Inc. 1988. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Release 6.03 Edition. Cary, North Carolina, 1028 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Salojärvi, K. 1992. Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.s.l.) stocking as a management tool in small forest lakes. (in Finnish, with English abstract).Suomen Kalatalous 60:234–245.Google Scholar
  25. Shelby, B., and J. J. Vaske. 1991. Resource and activity substitutes for recreational salmon fishing in New Zealand.Leisure Sciences 13:21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tuovinen, J.-P., L. Kangas, and G. Norlund. 1990. Model calculations of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in Finland. Pages 167–197in P. Kauppi, P. Anttila, and K. Kenttämies (eds.), Acidification in Finland. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  27. Tuunainen, P., P. J. Vuorinen, M. Rask, T. Järvenpää, M. Vuorinen, E. Niemelä, A. Lappalainen, S. Peuranen, and J. Raitaniemi. 1991. Effects of acid deposition on fish and crayfish. Final report (in Finnish, with English abstract).Suomen Kalatalous 57:44 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Tuunainen, P., K. Leinonen, and A.-L. Tuunainen. 1992. Inland fisheries. (in Finnish, with English abstract).Suomen Kalatalous 60:70–90.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antti Lappalainen
    • 1
  • Mikael Hildén
    • 2
  • Kalevi Leinonen
    • 3
  1. 1.Finnish Game and Fisheries Research InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.National Board of Waters and the EnvironmentHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Finnish Game and Fisheries Research InstituteHelsinklFinland

Personalised recommendations