, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 323–340 | Cite as

The manganese cycle in Lac Léman, Switzerland: the role ofMetallogenium

  • J. -M. Jaquet
  • G. Nembrini
  • J. Garcia
  • J. -P. Vernet


The manganese pathways in Lac Léman have been investigated on the basis of chemical analyses undertaken on water, suspended solids, bottom sediments and interstitial water samples.

The various modes of occurrence of Mn have been determined by means of visual examination using SEM and TEM (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), by microanalysis (EDAX) of various sediment fractions, by chemical analysis of the dissolved phase, and by chemical speciation and XRD of bottom sediments. Fluxes to and from the sediment have also been computed.

The time-depth variations of Mn in the water column are characterized by (a) a very steep gradient of Mn sol. from the sediment interstitial water (15 mg l−1) to the overlying water, 2 m above the bottom(500 µg l−1), (b) an accumulation of Mn part. between 280 m and the interface at 310 m, consisting of mineralized colonies ofMetallogenium.

The abundance ofMetallogenium colonies is inversely related to O2 concentration; the optimal value for the bacterium Mn fixation is around 1 mg l−1.

Because of the quasi-anoxic state of the bottom sediments and overlying water, Mn diffuses from a ‘source layer’, 2–5 cm below the interface (a) upwards across the interface, before being taken up byMetallogenium, and (b) downwards to a ‘sink layer’, in which large amounts of Mn-carbonate precipitate.

Particulate Mn sedimentation rates measured in traps show that downwards Mn flux due toMetallogenium settling approximately balances the upwards soluble flux due to diffusion. Quantitatively, the process of Mn cycling in Lac Léman is, therefore, limited to the lowermost part of the hypolimnion.

Although Zn and Cd seem to follow the same cycle as Mn, Fe behaves in a different manner; it was not taken up byMetallogenium at the time of our study.


manganese cycle Metallogenium Lac Léman 


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Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. -M. Jaquet
    • 1
  • G. Nembrini
    • 2
  • J. Garcia
    • 2
  • J. -P. Vernet
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut F.-A. ForelUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Département de Chimie analytique et minéraleUniversity of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland

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