, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 3–15 | Cite as

Mixing patterns in Amazon lakes

  • Jose G. Tundisi
  • Bruce R. Forsberg
  • Allan H. Devol
  • Thomas M. Zaret
  • Takako M. Tundisi
  • Antonio Dos Santos
  • Jorge S. Ribeiro
  • Elsa R. Hardy


The diel mixing patterns of two small floodplain lakes, Lago Jacaretinga in the Amazon drainage, and Lago Cristalino in the Rio Negro system, were investigated during both the high-water and low-water states of the Amazon River hydrograph. Measurements included temperature, oxygen, ammonia, phosphate, and chlorophyll. In both lakes thermal stratification developed during the day and was eroded at night. During the low-water period when the lakes were shallow, nocturnal circulation extended to the lake bottom, whereas when the lakes were deeper (greater than about 5 m), circulation did not reach the bottom and an anoxic hypolimnion developed. During the low-water period, percent of oxygen concentrations were relatively high but always less than saturation. Low oxygen concentrations were observed during the high-water period. At all times nocturnal mixing supplied a significant amount of oxygen to the lake ecosystems. Nighttime upward mixing of recycled nitrogen and phosphorus also appeared to be important nutrient sources for algal productivity.


tropical lakes Amazonia nutrients seasonality fish kill 


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Copyright information

© Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose G. Tundisi
    • 1
  • Bruce R. Forsberg
    • 2
  • Allan H. Devol
    • 3
  • Thomas M. Zaret
    • 4
  • Takako M. Tundisi
    • 1
  • Antonio Dos Santos
    • 2
  • Jorge S. Ribeiro
    • 2
  • Elsa R. Hardy
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. Ciencias BiologicasUniversidade Federal Sao CarlosSâo Carlos, SPBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazoniaManaus, AmazonasBrazil
  3. 3.School of Fisheries, WH-10University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Zoology & Institute for Environmental Studies FM-12University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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