Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 2716–2724 | Cite as

Towards a prediction of the hardness of the heat-affected zone of steel weldments

  • M. R. Bayoumi


The prediction of the level of hardness developed in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of steel welds is discussed. It is composed of a thermal model that predicts the cooling behaviour from input welding parameters and a material model for calculating the HAZ hardness as a result of weld cooling. Experimental investigations were carried out on eight different steel welds using three different electrodes under two different welding processes. Comparisons of the experimental results as well as the experimental results reported in the open literature, against the calculated values for both HAZ hardness and cooling time, were conducted. The results presented in this paper show good agreement between calculated and measured values of both cooling rate and hardness. The calculations can be carried out readily in small pocketsized computers.


Polymer Welding Experimental Investigation Material Model Welding Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


a, b, N



heat transfer coefficient


thickness (m)


time (sec)


non-dimensional thickness parameter


welding speed (m sec−1)


carbon equivalents in the Terasaki model

(CeqI, CeqII)Yurioka

carbon equivalents in the Yurioka model


volumetric specific heat capacity (Jm−3°C−1)


hardness in VPNv


hardness value corresponding to 0% martensite in VPN

H (τ100)

hardness value corresponding to 100% martensite in VPN


current (A)


thermal conductivity (Wm−1 °C−1)


net heat input rate (W)


temperature (°C)


preheat temperature (°C)


voltage (V)


weld efficiency


cooling time between 800 and 500 °C (sec)


cooling time between 800 and 500 °C corresponding to 0% martensite transformation (sec)


cooling time between 800 and 500°C corresponding to 100% martensite transformation (sec).


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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Bayoumi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Production Engineering and Mechanical Systems DesignKing Abdul Aziz University, JeddahJeddahSaudi Arabia

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