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Copulatory vocalizations of female macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Variability factors analysis


In 234 copulations, male and female behavioural patterns were collected, especially the vocal pattern for the female. Moreover quantitative structural analysis was performed on 38 of these female copulatory vocalizations. A multifactorial analysis, ANAFAC, was performed to seek relations between (1) utterance of female copulatory call and male and female copulatory behaviour and (2) these patterns and the great variability of female calls. Utterance of female copulatory vocalizations is essentially due to the female’s own copulatory behaviour in periods of intense sexual activity. Long female calls are related to male ejaculation, and those “rich” in harmonics are related to visual and tactile communicatory signals exchanged by the male and the female during a mount. This analysis strongly confirms the tied bond between quality of a call and internal state of the emitter. Long calls, rich in harmonics, may serve as signals maintaining or strengthening the possibly temporary preferential relation between male and sexually receptive female.

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Deputte, B.L., Goustard, M. Copulatory vocalizations of female macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Variability factors analysis. Primates 21, 83–99 (1980).

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  • Structural Analysis
  • Sexual Activity
  • Preferential Relation
  • Internal State
  • Great Variability