Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 17–21 | Cite as

Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density in Japanese infants and children: Measurement with dual x-ray absorptiometry

  • Hirokazu Tsukahara
  • Masakatsu Sudo
  • Tetsuo Nakashima
  • Yasushi Fujii
  • Kazutaka Yamamoto
  • Yasushi Ishii


Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR-1000/W; Hologic, Inc.) was used to measure lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) in 83 healthy Japanese infants and children (55 boys and 28 girls) aged 0–17 years, and the values obtained were correlated with age, body weight and body height. The lumbar BMD (average of L1–L4 values) increased with age, with a nearly twofold increase found from preschool age to adolescence. It also increased with body weight and body height. Our results on normal Japanese infants and children appear almost similar to those reported in French and American studies. Because of its great precision and accuracy, low radiation exposure and rapid scanning, DXA may be the most suitable for use in infants and children. With normal Japanese data now available with this technique, pediatricians can better detect metabolic bone diseases in infants and children and follow the bone response to medical intervention in patients with these conditions.

Key words

Lumbar vertebrae Bone mineral density Japanese Infants and children Dual x-ray absorptiometry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Riggs, B.L., Wahner, H.W., Dunn, W.L., Mazess R.B., Offord, K.P. and Melton, L.J. III.: Differential changes in bone mineral density of the appendicular and axial skeleton with aging: Relationship to spinal osteoporosis. J. Clin. Invest. 67: 328–335, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mazess, R.B., Peppler, W.W., Chesney, R.W., Lange, T.A., Lindgren, U. and Smith, E. Jr.: Does bone measurement on the radius indicate skeletal status? Concise communication. J. Nucl. Med, 25: 281–288, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gilsanz, V., Gibbens, D.T., Roe, T.F., Carlson, M., Senac, M.O., Boechat, M.I., Huang, H.K., Schulz, E.E., Libanati, C.R. and Cann, C.C.: Vertebral bone density in children: Effect of puberty. Radiology 166: 847–850, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Schepper, J., Derde, M.P., Van den Broeck, M., Piepsz, A. and Jonckheer, M.H.: Normative data for lumbar spine boss mineral content in children: Influence of age, height, weight, and pubertal stage. J. Nucl. Med. 32: 216–220, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas, K.A., Cook, S.D., Bennett, J.T., Whitecloud, T.S. III and Rice, J.C.: Femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral densities in a normal population 3–20 years of age. J. Pediatr. Orthop. 11: 48–58, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sartoris, D.J. and Resnick, D.: Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry for bone densitometry: Current status and perspective. AJR 152: 241–246, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansen, M.A., Hassager, C., Overgaard, K., Marslew, U., Riis, B.J. and Christiansen, C.: Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry: A precise method of measuring bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. J. Nucl. Med. 31: 1156–1162, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lang, P., Steiger, P., Faulkner, K., Glüer, C. and Genant, H.K.: Osteoporosis: Current techniques and recent developments in quantitative bone densitometry. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 29: 49–76, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glastre, C., Braillon, P., David, L., Cochat, P., Meunier, P.J. and Delmas, P.D.: Measurement of bone mineral content of the lumbar spine by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in normal children: Correlations with growth parameters. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 70: 1330–1333, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonjour, J.P., Theintz, G., Buchs, B., Slosman, D. and Rizzoli, R.: Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73: 555–563, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katzman, D.K., Bachrach, L.K., Carter, D.R. and Marcus, R.: Clinical and anthropometric correlates of bone mineral acquisition in healthy adolescent girls. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73: 1332–1339, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henderson, R.C.: Assessment of bone mineral content in children. J. Pediatr. Orthop. 11: 314–317, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Southard, R.N., Morris, J.D., Mahan, J.D., Hayes, J.R., Torch, M.A., Sommer, A. and Zipf, W.B.: Bone mass in healthy children: Measurement with quantitative DXA. Radiology 179: 735–738, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kröger, H., Kotaniemi, A., Vainio, P. and Alhava, E.: Bone densitometry of the spine and femur in children by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone Miner. 17: 75–85, 1992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cole, D.E.C., Carpenter, T.O. and Gundberg, C.M.: Serum osteocalcin concentrations in children with metabolic bone disease. J. Pediatr. 106: 770–776, 1985.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mehls, O. and Salusky, I.B.: Recent advances and controversies in childhood renal osteodystrophy. Pediatr. Nephrol. 1: 212–223, 1987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell, D.E. and Fleischman, A.R.: Rickets of prematurity: Controversies in causation and prevention. Clin. Perinatol. 15: 879–890, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reed, A. Haugen, M. Pachman, L.M. and Langman, C.B.: Abnormalities in serum osteocalcin values in children with chronic rheumatic diseases. J. Pediatr. 116: 574–580, 1990.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Bone Metabolism Research 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirokazu Tsukahara
    • 1
  • Masakatsu Sudo
    • 1
  • Tetsuo Nakashima
    • 2
  • Yasushi Fujii
    • 1
  • Kazutaka Yamamoto
    • 2
  • Yasushi Ishii
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsFukui Medical SchoolFukuiJapan
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyFukui Medical SchoolFukuiJapan

Personalised recommendations