, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 147–161 | Cite as

Observing groups as seen from both sides of the looking glass

  • Peter A. Martin
  • Muriel Tornga
  • James F. McGloinJr.
  • Steven Boles


This paper attempts to make a contribution to an area of the literature on group therapy about which very little has been published—the effects of the therapy group upon the observing group and the dynamics of the observing group as an entity in itself. Although work on which this paper is based took place in training institutions where education is the primary function, it is important to emphasize that education and personal change are interrelated. Psychotherapeutic activity takes place spontaneously with the observers and needs to be constructively utilized. This wealth of process and reaction is an untapped training opportunity for the observing group. The challenge of method, personal reactions, and group process responses are all opportunities for its members to both learn more as therapists and mature as individuals. At this juncture, we are trying to establish ways of


Social Psychology Group Therapy Primary Function Group Process Cross Cultural Psychology 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Martin
    • 4
    • 1
  • Muriel Tornga
    • 4
  • James F. McGloinJr.
    • 4
  • Steven Boles
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Wayne State University Medical SchoolsUSA
  2. 2.Ann ArborUSA
  3. 3.ToledoUSA
  4. 4.Psychiatry Outpatient DepartmentUiversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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