Primates

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 793–813 | Cite as

Social relations in a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Male-care behaviour I

  • Alejandro Estrada
  • Juan M. Sandoval
Article

Abstract

The occurrence of male-care behaviour directed from juvenile and adult males to infants was studied in a free-ranging troop of Stumptail macaques. The study period lasted two months comprising about 140 hours of recorded observations.

Infants were a focal subgroup and their interactions with older males were recorded. The following variables were examined in relationship to the sending and receiving of male-care: the infant (its age, sex, and dominance rank), older males (their age and dominance rank), and genetic ties.

Infants I received more male-care than infants II and differences in the type of male-care received by infants I and II were found. Male infants received more male-care than female infants and sex differences in the type of care received were evident. No relationship was found between the infant’s dominance rank and the amount of male-care received. A substantial amount of male-care behaviour was sent to genetic kin.

Two-three year olds displayed more male care than yearlings. Juveniles as a class displayed more male-care than adults. A positive association was found between the juveniles’ dominance rank and the sending of male-care. However, among the adults, the subordinate male displayed more care behaviour than the alpha male. The presence or absence of the mother was found to influence the older males’ interest in the infant. The results are discussed and compared with data available on other primate species.

Keywords

Adult Male Social Relation Animal Ecology Primate Species Male Infant 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, B. K., 1970. Parental behavior of adult male Japanese monkeys.Behaviour, 36: 270–285.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J., 1974. Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods.Behaviour, 49: 227–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernstein, I. S., 1975. Activity profiles in a Gelada monkey group.Folia primat., 23: 50–71.Google Scholar
  4. Bertrand, M., 1969.The Behavioral Repertoire of the Stumptail Macaque. Bibliotheca Primatologica, No. 11, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  5. Brandt, E. M., R. Irons, &G. Mitchell, 1970. Paternalistic behavior in four species of macaques.Brain, Behavior & Evolution, 3: 415–420.Google Scholar
  6. Burton, F. D., 1972. The integration of biology and behavior in the socialization ofMacaca sylvana of Gibraltar. In:Primate Socialization,F. E. Poirier (ed.), Random House, New York, pp. 29–62.Google Scholar
  7. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S., 1975.The Ontogeny of Communication in the Stumptail Macaque (Macaca arctoides). Contribution to Primatology, No. 2, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  8. Deag, J. M. &J. H. Crook, 1971. Social behaviour and “agonistic buffering” in the wild barbary macaque,Macaca sylvana L.Folia primat., 15: 183–200.Google Scholar
  9. DeVore, I. &K. R. L. Hall, 1965. Baboon social behavior. In:Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, pp. 53–110.Google Scholar
  10. Estrada, A., 1976. A ten month field study on the ontogeny of social relations in a free-ranging group of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Ph. D. Thesis, Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  11. ————, 1976a. Birth and breeding cyclicity in an out-door living stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides) group.Primates, 17: 225–231.Google Scholar
  12. ———— & ————, 1976b. Establishment of a free-ranging colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Relations to the ecology I.Primates, 17: 337–355.Google Scholar
  13. Gouzoules, H., 1975. Maternal rank and early social interactions of infant stumptail macaques,Macaca arctoides.Primates, 16: 405–418.Google Scholar
  14. Hendy-Neely, H. &R. J. Rhine, 1977. Social development of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Momentary touching and other interactions with adult males during the infants’ first 60 days of life.Primates, 18: 589–600.Google Scholar
  15. Itani, J., 1963. Paternal care in the wild Japanese monkey,Macaca fuscata. In:Primate Social Behavior,C. H. Southwick (ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, pp. 91–97.Google Scholar
  16. Kaufmann, J. H., 1967. Social relations of adult males in a free-ranging band of rhesus monkeys. In:Social Communication Among Primates,S. A. Altmann (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, pp. 73–98.Google Scholar
  17. Koford, C. B., 1963. Rank of mothers and sons in bands of rhesus monkeys.Science, 141: 356–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kummer, H., 1967. Tripartite relations in hamadryas baboons. In:Social Communication Among Primates,S. A. Altmann (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, pp. 63–91.Google Scholar
  19. Lahiri, R. K. &C. H. Southwick, 1966. Parental care inMacaca sylvana.Folia primat., 4: 257–264.Google Scholar
  20. Lancaster, J. R., 1972. Play-mothering: The relations between juvenile females and young infants among free-ranging vervet monkeys. In:Primate Socialization,F. E. Poirier (ed.), Random House, New York, pp. 3–104.Google Scholar
  21. Mitchell, G., 1969. Paternalistic behavior in primates.Psychol. Bull., 71: 399–417.Google Scholar
  22. ————, 1972. Paternal behavior in primates. In:Primate Socialization,F. E. Poirier (ed.), Random House, New York, pp. 173–206.Google Scholar
  23. Ransom, T. W. &B. S. Ransom, 1971. Adult male-infant relations among baboons (Papio anubis).Folia primat., 16: 179–195.Google Scholar
  24. ————, 1972. Early social development of feral baboons. In:Primate Socialization,F. E. Poirier (ed.), Random House, New York, pp. 105–144.Google Scholar
  25. Redican, W. K. &G. Mitchell, 1974. Play between adult male and infant rhesus monkeys.Amer. Zool., 14: 295–302.Google Scholar
  26. Rhine, R., 1973. Variation and consistency in the social behavior of two groups of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides).Primates, 14: 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rowell, T. E., 1968. The effect of temporary separation from their groups on the mother-infant relationship of baboons.Folia primat., 9: 114–122.Google Scholar
  28. Sade, D. S., 1965. Some aspects of parent-offspring and sibling relations in a group of rhesus monkeys, with a discussion of grooming.Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 23: 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ————, 1967. Determinants of dominance in a group of free-ranging rhesus. In:Social Communication Among Primates,S. A. Altmann (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  30. Spencer-Booth, Y., 1968. The behavior of group companions toward rhesus monkeys infants.Anim. Behav., 16: 541–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. van Lawick-Goodall, J., 1967. Mother-offspring relationships in free-ranging chimpanzees. In:Primate Ethology,D. Morris (ed.), Aldine, Chicago, pp. 365–446.Google Scholar
  32. ————, 1968. The behavior of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve.Animal Behavior Monograph Series, 1: 161–311.Google Scholar
  33. Welkowitz, I., R. Ewen, &I. Cohen, 1971.Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Yamada, M., 1963. A study of blood relationships in the natural society of Japanese monkey.Primates, 4: 43–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Estrada
    • 1
  • Juan M. Sandoval
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones BiomédicasU. N. A. M.México 20, D. F.
  2. 2.El Departmento de la Etnología y la Antropología SocialI. N. A. H., Convento del CarmenMéxico 20, D. F.

Personalised recommendations