, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 151–172 | Cite as

Ecology and behavior ofPresbytis thomasi in Northern Sumatra

  • Kunkun Jaka Gurmaya


A field study of 23 bisexual troops, ranging in size from 3 to 21 members (\(\bar x\)=8), and two all-male groups of the Thomas's leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi) was conducted in North Sumatra from November 1981 to April 1984. Most troops (N=19 or 82.6%) contained only one adult male. Two troops and one group were most intensively studied. The home range was 12.3–15.7 ha for the two bisexual troops, and only 1.7 ha for the one, all-male, ten-member group. Fruits composed more than 50% of their diets. Vocalizations were classified into 13 types. Births occurred at any time of the year. Among three males of a bisexual troop, serious fights were observed: two males died of wounds and the former beta male became the new alpha male. After this social change, the home range area of this troop gradually shifted eastward. But, 3.5 months after the social change, a 9-month-old infant male stayed alone in the western part of its former range. Thereafter, he became a solitary male and sometimes went into the riverine area of the Bohorok river. The occurrence of male replacement suggests instability of multi-male organization in bisexual troops. Moreover, the different mortality rate between males and females and the unequal sex ratios forced by the formation of one-male troops, maintained high tension levels among males competing on females.

Key Words

Presbytis thomasi Ecology Behavior Social change Killing 


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunkun Jaka Gurmaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencePadjadjaran UniversityBandungIndonesia

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