Organization of scraper operations during construction of the Irtysh-Karaganda canal
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The scraper is a highly productive, highly effective earth-moving ma chine, which in the immediate future should become the basic machine used to construct massive hydraulic fills. Experience gained with the yearround use of a large fleet of scrapers during construction of dams and retaining dikes of the Irtysh-Karaganda canal markedly increases not only the geographic possibility of the use of scrapers in moderate and severe climatic zones, but also their highly effective year-round use.
The development and introduction of the scraper technique of constructing dams and retaining dikes from cohesive soils in the winter under continuous subfreezing temperatures is a new, promising and effective method of organizing the production of earthwork in hydraulic construction, which has made it possible during the course of the year to construct embankments with scrapers as a function of meteorological conditions, to shorten the construction time markedly, to improve the use of structural techniques, and to reduce the cost of the earthwork.
A comparative technico-economic analysis of the work performed by scraper crews during seasonal operations with a winter layoff and during year-round operations, as well as the computation of the economic effect of continuous scraper operation indicated that the savings realized with the continuous operation is accrued chiefly due to the provision for a rhythmic operation and the shortening of the time required to complete the work. A basic savings from direct outlays is accrued due to a reduction in the cost of soil excavation and an increase in the mean productivity of scraper operations throughout the year. In this case, it is necessary to note that the higher the machine productivity, the greater the savings. The savings due to conversion of scraper-crew operations from a seasonal to a year-round basis amounted to 1 million rubles per year in direct expenditures alone. The outlays associated with pusher operations in loading scrapers with soil, and the additional expenditures associated with preparatory soil pulverization and preparation of the salt solution during the winter operation were discounted in estimating the savings.
KeywordsExcavation Cohesive Soil Structural Technique Basic Machine Hydraulic Construction
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