, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 455–464 | Cite as

Observation on the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) using semithin sections

  • Yasukazu Nagato
  • Tomoo Enomoto
  • Kiyoaki Matsubayashi


The stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in the Japanese macaque are investigated using testes fixed by a mixture of formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde containing picric acid and embedded in a methacrylate resin, Quetol 523M. Sections, 1.0–2.0 µm in thickness, were cut with glass knives and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and hematoxylin. Sections from such resin blocks illustrated cellular detail without structural distortion during the polymerization process. Furthermore, staining affinity with PAS and hematoxylin was excellent. In stained sections, typical germ cell associations were described, based on the nuclear morphology of type A (dark and pale) spermatogonium, type B spermatogonium, various developmental stages of primary spermatocytes during meiosis, and the development of the acrosomic system. In the Japanese macaque, two different steps of spermatids (steps 3 and 4) were constantly seen in the same area of the tubular epithelium during stage III. Therefore, a classification into ten stages is proposed for the cycle in this species. Additional characteristics are described based on the observation of the seminiferous epithelium using semithin sections.

Key Words

Macaca fuscata Japanese macaque Cycle of seminiferous epithelium Spermatogenesis Semithin section Methacrylate embedding 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barr, A. B., 1973. Timing of spermatogenesis in four nonhuman primate species.Fertl. Steril., 24: 381–389.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, H. S., A. D. Wyrick, S. W. Lee, &J. H. McNeil, 1976. Science and art in preparing tissue embedded in plastic for light microscopy with special reference to glycol methacrylate, glass knives and simple stains.Stain Technol., 51: 71–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chapperd, D., C. Alexandre, M. Campes, J. P. Matheard, &G. Riffat, 1983. Embedding iliac bone biopsies at low temperature using glycol and methyl methacrylates.Stain Technol., 58: 289–308.Google Scholar
  4. Clermont, Y., 1963. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium of man.Amer. J. Anat., 112: 35–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. ————, 1969. Two classes of spermatogonial stem cells in the monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops).Amer. J. Anat., 126: 57–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. ———— &M. Antar, 1973. Duration of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the spermatogonial renewal in the monkey,Macaca arctoides.Amer. J. Anat., 136: 153–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. ———— &C. P. Leblond, 1955. Spermiogenesis of man, monkey, ram and other mammals as shown by the Periodic acid-Schiff technique.Amer. J. Anat., 96: 229–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. ———— & ————, 1959. Differentiation and renewal of spermatogonia in the monkey (Macaca mulatta).Amer. J. Anat., 104: 237–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cole, M. B., Jr., 1984. Alteration of cartilage matrix morphology with histological processing.J. Microsc., 133: 129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hess, R. A., 1990. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the stages and transitions in the cycle of the rat seminiferous epithelium: light microscopic observations of perfusion-fixed and plastic-embedded testis.Biol. Reprod., 43: 525–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hott, M. &P. J. Marie, 1987. Glycol methacrylate as an embedding medium for bone.Stain Technol., 62: 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Iijima, H., Y. Nagato, &T. Kushida, 1992. Staining of semithin tissue sections embedded in HPMA, Quetol 523 and MMA.Okajimas Folia Anat. Jpn., 69: 15–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kushida, H., T. Kushida, &H. Iijima, 1985. An improved method for both light and electron microscopy of identical sites in semithin sections under 200 kV transmission electron microscope.J. Electron Microsc., 34: 438–441.Google Scholar
  14. Kushida, T., Y. Nagato, &H. Kushida, 1981. New method of embedding with GNA, Quetol 523 and methyl methacrylate for light and electron microscopic observation of semithin sections.Okajimas Folia Anat. Jpn., 58: 55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu, C. C., 1987. A simplified technique for low temperature methyl methacrylate embedding.Stain Technol., 62: 155–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Matsubayashi, K. &T. Enomoto, 1983. Longitudinal studies on annual changes in plasma testosterone, body weight and spermatogenesis in adult Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) under laboratory conditions.Primates, 24: 521–529.Google Scholar
  17. ———— &K. Mochizuki, 1982. Growth of male reproductive organs with observation of their seasonal morphologic changes in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).Jpn. J. Vet. Sci., 44: 891–902.Google Scholar
  18. Myhre, J. L. &A. Depaoli, 1985. A glycol methacrylate method for the routine histologic evaluation of rat inner ear.Stain Technol., 60: 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nagato, Y., T. Kushida, &H. Kushida, 1981. Fixation of semithin sections for combined light and electron microscopy.Okajimas Folia Anat. Jpn., 58: 69–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. ————, ————, & ————, 1984. A method for histochemical localization of glycosaminoglycans in semithin tissue sections embedded in GMA, Quetol 523 and methyl methacrylate.J. Electron Microsc., 33: 252–254.Google Scholar
  21. ————,M. Sekiguchi, T. Kushida, H. Kushida, &K. Shimai, 1989. Use of semithin sections embedded in a water-miscible methacrylate for light microscopy of central nerve tissue.Okajimas Folia Anat. Jpn., 66: 145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. ————, ————, ————, &K. Shimai, 1991. Correlative light and electron microscopic observations on ectopic neurons in the cerebellum of dreher mutant mouse.J. Electron Microsc., 40: 11–18.Google Scholar
  23. Nigi, H., 1975. Sexual maturity of male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in Siga A troop. Physiol.Ecol., 16: 47–53.Google Scholar
  24. ————,T. Tiba, S. Yamamoto, Y. Floeschheim, &N. Ohsawa, 1980. Sexual maturation and seasonal change in reproductive phenomena of male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) at Takasakiyama.Primates, 21: 230–240.Google Scholar
  25. Rieder, C. L. &S. S. Bowser, 1983. Factors which influence light microscopic visualization.J. Microsc., 132: 71–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Roth, J., M. Bendayon, E. Carlemalm, W. Villiger, &M. Garvito, 1981. Enhancement of structural preservation and immunocytochemical staining in low temperature embedded pancreatic tissue.J. Histochem. Cytochem., 29: 663–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruddell, C. L., 1983. Initiating polymerization of glycol methacrylate with cyclic diketo carbon acids.Stain Technol., 58: 329–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Suzuki, T. &Y. Nagato, 1980. Immunohistochemical investigation of chick oviduct using a GMA-Quetol 523 embedding method.Acta Histochem. Cytochem., 13: 486–498.Google Scholar
  29. Tiba, T., 1981. Jahreszeitliche schwankengen der spermatogenese des Japanischen makak (Macaca fuscata) in gefangenschaft, insbesondere im vergleich mit freiliebenden gruppen.Z. Saugetierekunde, 46: 352–363.Google Scholar
  30. ———— &H. Nigi, 1975. Unregelmassig aufgebaute zellgemeinschaften des samenepithels beim free-ranging Japanischen makak (Macaca fuscata) in der paarungszeit.Primates, 16: 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. ———— & ————, 1980. Jahreszeitliche schwankung in der spermatogenese beim “free-ranging” Japanischen makak (Macaca fuscata).Zool. Anz. Jena, 204: 371–387.Google Scholar
  32. Wynford-Thomas, D., B. Stringer, &G. R. Newman, 1981. Hydroxyethyl methacrylate embedding: an improved technique.Med. Lab. Sci., 38: 121–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasukazu Nagato
    • 1
  • Tomoo Enomoto
    • 1
  • Kiyoaki Matsubayashi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MorphologyTokai University School of MedicineKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan

Personalised recommendations