In 1973, personality ratings using a test called the Emotions Profile Index (EPI) were made on a number of Gombe chimpanzees, including a deviant female namedPassion. Passion's ratings were compared to the profiles of the other adult females from the same community.Passion's ratings were also analyzed in terms of her subsequent infanticidal and cannibalistic behavior, observed from 1975 to 1977. The EPI scales were found to be useful in detecting social deviance. The test appears to be a good descriptive and predictive measuring instrument. Suggestions are made for utilizing the EPI rating scales in the assessment of the psychological well-being of captive and/or research animals.
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Buirski, P., Plutchik, R. Measurement of deviant behavior in a gombe chimpanzee: Relation to later behavior. Primates 32, 207–211 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02381177
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