, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 252–271 | Cite as

Population genetics of Japanese monkeys: II. Blood protein polymorphisms and population structure

  • Ken Nozawa
  • Takayoshi Shotake
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
  • Yuichi Tanabe


Genetic variability in individual troops of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) was quantified by the proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity per individual from the results of starch-gel electrophoreses of blood proteins controlled by 32 independent genetic loci. The former averaged 9.2% and the latter 1.3%, the values being remarkably lower than those estimated for other animal populations. Geographical distribution of the genetic variations was not uniform in the whole species but the variants occurred only in limited areas. Assuming the selective neutrality of segregating alleles and the two-dimensional stepping-stone model of population structure, the genetic migration rate between the local demes per generation could be estimated to average less than inverse of average effective deme size. Here, the local deme is not a troop itself, but it consists of several troops tightly connected with each other by frequent exchanges of reproductive males. Analyses of correlation between geographic and genetic distances between troops revealed that the gene constitutions of two troops apart more than 100 km on an island could be regarded as practically independent of each other. These results suggest that the population structure of the Japanese macaque species has a tendency to split into a number of local subpopulations in which the effect of random genetic drift is prevailing.


Population Structure Migration Rate Blood Protein Japanese Monkey Average Heterozygosity 
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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Nozawa
    • 1
  • Takayoshi Shotake
    • 1
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
    • 1
  • Yuichi Tanabe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Variation Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Poultry and Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureGifu UniversityGifuJapan

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