Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 252–271 | Cite as

Population genetics of Japanese monkeys: II. Blood protein polymorphisms and population structure

  • Ken Nozawa
  • Takayoshi Shotake
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
  • Yuichi Tanabe
Article

Abstract

Genetic variability in individual troops of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata fuscata) was quantified by the proportion of polymorphic loci and the average heterozygosity per individual from the results of starch-gel electrophoreses of blood proteins controlled by 32 independent genetic loci. The former averaged 9.2% and the latter 1.3%, the values being remarkably lower than those estimated for other animal populations. Geographical distribution of the genetic variations was not uniform in the whole species but the variants occurred only in limited areas. Assuming the selective neutrality of segregating alleles and the two-dimensional stepping-stone model of population structure, the genetic migration rate between the local demes per generation could be estimated to average less than inverse of average effective deme size. Here, the local deme is not a troop itself, but it consists of several troops tightly connected with each other by frequent exchanges of reproductive males. Analyses of correlation between geographic and genetic distances between troops revealed that the gene constitutions of two troops apart more than 100 km on an island could be regarded as practically independent of each other. These results suggest that the population structure of the Japanese macaque species has a tendency to split into a number of local subpopulations in which the effect of random genetic drift is prevailing.

Keywords

Population Structure Migration Rate Blood Protein Japanese Monkey Average Heterozygosity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Avise, J. C. &R. K. Selander, 1972. Evolutionary genetics of cave-dwelling fishes of the genusAstyanax.Evolution, 26: 1–19.Google Scholar
  2. Baur, E. W. &R. T. Schorr, 1969. Genetic polymorphism of tetrazolium oxidase in dogs.Science, 166: 1524–1525.Google Scholar
  3. Bowman, J. E. &G. Ronaghy, 1967. Hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and adenylate kinase polymorphism in Moslems in Iran.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 27: 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty, R., P. A. Fuerst &M. Nei, 1978. Statistical studies on protein polymorphism in natural populations. II. Gene differentiation between populations.Genetics, 88: 367–390.Google Scholar
  5. Chernoff, A. Z. &N. M. Petiti, 1964. The amino acid composition of hemoglobin. III. A quantitative method of identifying abnormalities of polypeptide chains of hemoglobin.Blood, 24: 750–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fuerst, P. A., R. Chakraborty &M. Nei, 1977. Statistical studies on protein polymorphism in natural populations. I. Distribution of single locus heterozygosity.Genetics, 86: 455–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gahne, B., 1966. Studies on the inheritance of electrophoretic forms of transferrins, albumins, prealbumins and plasma esterases of horses.Genetics, 53: 681–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hopkinson, D. A., M. A. Mestriner, J. Cortner &H. Harris, 1973. Esterase-D: A new human polymorphism.Ann. Human Genet., 37: 119–137.Google Scholar
  9. Imlah, P., 1964. Inherited variants in serum ceruloplasmin of the pig.Nature, 203: 658–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ishimoto, G., 1972a. Blood protein variations in Asian macaques. I. Serum proteins and hemoglobin.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 80: 250–274.Google Scholar
  11. ————, 1972b. Blood protein variations in Asian macaques. II. Red cell enzymes.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 80: 337–350.Google Scholar
  12. ————,M. Kuwata &T. Shotake, 1974. Polymorphism of red cell NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in macaque monkeys.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 82: 52–58.Google Scholar
  13. Kawanaka, K., 1973. Intertroop relationships among Japanese monkeys.Primates, 14: 113–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kimura, M., 1968. Evolutionary rate at the molecular level.Nature, 217: 624–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. ———— &T. Maruyama, 1971. Pattern of neutral polymorphism in geographically structured population.Genet. Res., 18: 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. ———— &G. H. Weiss, 1964. The stepping stone model of population structure and the decrease of genetic correlation with distance.Genetics, 49: 561–576.Google Scholar
  17. King, J. L. &T. H. Jukes, 1969. Non-Darwinian evolution.Science, 164: 788–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Nevo, E., Y. J. Kim, C. R. Shaw &C. S. Thaeler, 1974. Genetic variation, relation and speciation inThomomys talpoides pocket gophers.Evolution, 28: 1–23.Google Scholar
  19. Nishida, T., 1966. A sociological study of solitary male monkeys.Primates, 7: 141–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nozawa, K., 1972. Population genetics of Japanese monkeys. I. Estimation of the effective troop size.Primates, 13: 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ————,T. Shotake &Y. Kawamoto, 1978. Maintenance mechanism of protein variations in the population of Japanese macaque. In:Dynamics, Maintenance Mechanisms and Evolutionary Significance of Isozyme Variations,K. Nozawa (ed.), Scientific Report for Grant-in-Aid by Ministry of Education, Japan, pp. 19–25.Google Scholar
  22. ————, ———— &Y. Ohkura, 1975. Blood protein polymorphisms and population structure of the Japanese macaque,Macaca fuscata fuscata. In:Isozymes IV. Genetics and Evolution,C. L. Markert (ed.), Academic Press, New York, San Francisco & London, pp. 225–241.Google Scholar
  23. ————, ————, ————,M. Kitajima &Y. Tanabe, 1975. Genetic variations within and between troops ofMacaca fuscata fuscata. In:Contemporary Primatology,S. Kondo,M. Kawai &A. Ehara (eds.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 75–89.Google Scholar
  24. ————, ————, ———— &Y. Tanabe, 1977. Genetic variations within and between species of Asian macaques.Japan. J. Genet., 52: 15–30.Google Scholar
  25. Ogita, Z., 1966. Genetico-biochemical studies on the salivary and pancreatic amylase isozymes in human.Med. J. Osaka Univ., 16: 271–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Omoto, K., S. Harada, T. Tanaka, H. Nigi &W. Prychodko, 1970. Distribution of the electrophoretic variants of serum-alpha1-antitrypsin in six species of the macaques.Primates, 11: 215–228.Google Scholar
  27. Scandalios, G., 1964. Tissue specific isozyme variations in maize.J. Hered., 55: 281–285.Google Scholar
  28. Selander, R. K., S. Y. Yang, R. C. Lewontin &W. E. Johnson, 1970. Genetic variation in the horseshoe carb (Limulus polyphemus), a phylogenetic ‘relic.’Evolution, 24: 402–414.Google Scholar
  29. Shaw, C. R. &R. Prasad, 1970. Starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes—a compilation of recipes.Biochem. Genet., 4: 297–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Shotake, T., 1974. Genetic polymorphism of blood proteins in the troops of Japanese macaques,Macaca fuscata: II. Erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase polymorphism inMacaca fuscata.Primates, 15: 297–303.Google Scholar
  31. ————, &K. Nozawa, 1974. Genetic polymorphisms in blood proteins in the troops of Japanese macaques,Macaca fuscata: I. Cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase polymorphism inMacaca fuscata and other non-human primates.Primates, 15: 219–226.Google Scholar
  32. Spencer, N., D. A. Hopkinson &H. Harris, 1968. Adenosine deaminase polymorphism in man.Ann. Human Genet., 32: 9–14.Google Scholar
  33. Sugiyama, Y. &H. Ohsawa, 1974. Population dynamics of Japanese macaques at Ryozenyama, Suzuka Mts. I. General view.Jap. J. Ecol., 24: 50–59.Google Scholar
  34. Suzuki, A., K. Wada, S. Yoshihiro, E. Tokita, S. Hara &Y. Aburada, 1975. Population dynamics and group movement of Japanese monkeys in Yokoyugawa Valley, Shiga Heights.Physiol. & Ecol., 16: 15–23.Google Scholar
  35. Takeshita, M., 1964. Distribution and population of the wild Japanese monkeys.Yaen, 19: 6–13; 20–21: 12–21. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Tanabe, Y., M. Ogawa &K. Nozawa, 1974. Polymorphism of thyroxin-binding prealbumin (TBPA) in primate species.Jap. J. Genet., 49: 265–273.Google Scholar
  37. Tashian, R. E., M. Goodman, V. E. Headings, J. Desimone &R. H. Ward, 1971. Genetic variation and evolution in the red cell carbonic anhydrase isozymes of macaque monkeys.Biochem. Genet., 5: 183–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Tokita, E. & K. Wada, 1974. Some characters of leaving and joining by males among A-troop and its neighbouring troops at Shiga Heights. In:Life History of Male Japanese Monkeys,K. Wada, S. Azuma & Y. Sugiyama (eds.), Primate Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., pp. 28–34. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. Wright, S., 1943. Isolation by distance.Genetics, 28: 114–138.Google Scholar
  40. ————, 1965. The interpretation of population structure by F-statistics with special regard to systems of mating.Evolution, 19: 395–420.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken Nozawa
    • 1
  • Takayoshi Shotake
    • 1
  • Yoshi Kawamoto
    • 1
  • Yuichi Tanabe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Variation Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Poultry and Animal Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureGifu UniversityGifuJapan

Personalised recommendations