, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 153–170 | Cite as

Food and nutritional condition of free ranging Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet during winter

  • Toshitaka Iwamoto


A female with infant was chosen as material for study in an attempt to assess the nutritional condition of free ranging Japanese monkeys during winter. Her daily food composition, dry weight intake and nutritional (protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and calorie) intake were measured monthly (October to March). About 90% and 8% of the autumn diet consisted of fruits and invertebrate animals, respectively, while 70% of the winter diet (February) consisted of leaves of evergreen trees.

Comparing the daily protein intake of this focal female with the requirement level estimated from references, only October and November represented months fulfilling this level. Also, there was a remarkable decrease in lipid intake towards winter. These results coincided well with the observed body weight loss in the female and the increasing feeding activity of her baby towards winter. It is suggested that such seasonal malnutrition of the mother might affect population parameters such as the infant mortality.


Nutritional Condition Infant Mortality Protein Intake Food Composition Body Weight Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Casimir, M. J., 1975. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaïre).Folia Primatol., 24: 81–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Coelho, A. M., C. A. Blamblett, L. B. Quick &S. S. Blamblett, 1976. Resource availability and population density in primates: A socio-bioenergetic analysis of the energy budgets of Guatemalan howler and spider monkeys.Primates, 17: 63–80.Google Scholar
  3. Crook, J. H. &F. P. G. Aldrich-Blake, 1968. Ecological and behavioural contrasts between sympatric ground dwelling primates in Ethiopia.Folia Primatol., 8: 192–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Day, P. L., 1962. Nutrient requirements of the young monkey. In:The Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals,National Academy of Science (ed.), National Research Council Publication, p. 990.Google Scholar
  5. Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyoto University, 1975.Experimental Textbook for Agricultural Chemistry, Vol. 2, Sangyo-Tosho, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  6. Dunbar, R. I. M., in prep. Social structure of gelada baboon reproductive units. IV. Integration at the group level.Google Scholar
  7. ———— &E. P. Dunbar, 1974. Ecological relation and niche separation between sympatric terrestrial primates in Ethiopia.Folia Primatol., 21: 36–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hamilton, III, W. J., R. E. Buskirk &W. H. Buskirk, 1978. Omnivory and utilization of food resources by chacma baboons,Papio ursinus.Amer. Naturalist, 122(987): 911–924.Google Scholar
  9. Iwamoto, T., 1974. A bioeconomic study on a provisionized troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at Koshima Islet, Miyazaki.Primates, 15: 241–262.Google Scholar
  10. ————, 1978a. Food availability as a limitation factor on population density of the Japanese monkey and gelada baboon. In:Recent Advances in Primatology,D. J. Chivers &J. Herbert (eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 287–303.Google Scholar
  11. ————, 1978b. The bioeconomic study on two primate populations, gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada) and Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata) with special reference to the limitation of their population density. Dr. Thesis of Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka.Google Scholar
  12. ----, in prep. Feeding strategy of Japanese monkeys at Koshima during winter.Google Scholar
  13. Japan Dietic Association Corporated, 1975.Standard Table of Food Composition. Daiichi-Shuppan, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Kawai, M. &T. Iwamoto, 1979. Nomadism and activities. In:Ecological and Sociological Studies of Gelada Baboons, Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 16,M. Kawai (ed.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 251–278.Google Scholar
  15. Kuroki, K., 1975. A quantitative study of the daily activity patterns of wild Japanese monkeys,Macaca fuscata fuscata, at Koshima Islet. Master's Thesis of Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka.Google Scholar
  16. Maruhashi, T., 1980. Feeding behaviour and diet of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island, Japan.Primates, 21: 141–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Milton, K., 1979. Factors influencing leaf choice by howler monkeys: A test of food selection by generalist herbivores.Amer. Naturalist, 114(3): 362–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mori, A. 1979a. An experiment on the relation between the feeding speed and the caloric intake through leaf eating in Japanese monkeys.Primates, 20: 185–195.Google Scholar
  19. ————, 1979b. Analysis of population changes by measurement of body weight in Koshima troop of Japanese monkeys.Primates, 20: 371–397.Google Scholar
  20. Portman, O. W., 1970. Nutritional requirements of non-human primates. In:Feeding and Nutrition of Non-Human Primates,R. S. Harris (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 87–115.Google Scholar
  21. Robbins, R. C. &J. A. Gavan, 1966. Utilization of energy and protein of a commercial diet by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Lab. Anim. Care, 16: 286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Yotsumoto, N., 1976. The daily activity rhythm in a troop of wild Japanese monkeys.Primates, 17: 183–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshitaka Iwamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyMiyazaki UniversityMiyazakiJapan

Personalised recommendations