Among New World monkeys, more or less sexual dimorphism exists in the dentition, especially in the Cebidae. On the other hand, the Callitrichidae includingSaguinus are said to be characterized by a broad lack of sexual dimorphism with the exception of the reproductive organs.
In the present article, sexual dimorphism in the dentition of someSaguinus species was reconfirmed using univariate and multivariate analytical methods. The results of the analysis were as follows: (1) there is no sexual dimorphism in the canine tooth size, except for the upper canine ofS. geoffroyi and lower canine ofS. mystax; (2) the overall tooth size difference between males and females is slight or none inS. geoffroyi, S. leucopus, andS. fuscicollis, relatively small inS. oedipus andS. mystax, and rather larger inS. midas; (3) an overall difference in shape factor between both sexes exists in all species ofSaguinus to a greater or lesser extent; (4) although only slight sexual dimorphism is recognized in the canine tooth itself, sexual dimorphism does exist in some adjacent teeth of the canine in a few species; and (5) there are some interspecific differences in the magnitude of the sexual dimorphism of theSaguinus dentition and these differences are more evident in species inhabiting the peripheral regions of the distribution areas of this genus.
Taking all the evidence obtained into account, the sexual dimorphism in theSaguinus dentition must be re-investigated in comparison with other genera of the Callitrichidae.
Key WordsSaguinus Sexual dimorphism Dentition Numerical analysis Canine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dawson, G. A., 1977. The biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae. In:Composition and Stability of Social Groups of the Tamarin, Saguinus oedipus geoffroyi,in Panama: Ecological and Behavioral Implications,D. Kleiman (ed.), Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 23–37.Google Scholar
- Eaglen, R. H., 1984. Incisor size and diet revisited: The view from Platyrrhine perspective.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 55: 263–275.Google Scholar
- Ford, S. M., 1980. Callitrichidae as phyletic dwarfs, and the place of the Callitrichidae in Platyrrhini.Primates, 21: 31–43.Google Scholar
- Garn, S. M., R. S. Kerewsky, &D. R. Swindler, 1966. Canine “fields” in sexual dimorphism of tooth size.Nature, 212: 1501–1502.Google Scholar
- Gingerich, P. D., 1981. Cranial morphology and adaptations in Eocene Adapidae. I. Sexual dimorphism inAdapis magnus andAdapis parisiensis.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 56: 217–234.Google Scholar
- Hanihara, K., 1978. Differences in sexual dimorphism in dental morphology among several human populations. In:Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth,P. M. Butler &K. A. Joysey (eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
- , 1981. Sexing of Japanese skeleton and teeth by discriminant function method.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 89: 401–418. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
- Harvey, P. H., M. Kavanagh, &T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1978a. Sexual dimorphism in primate teeth.J. Zool. Lond., 186: 475–485.Google Scholar
- Hershkovitz, P., 1977.Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini). Vol. 1. The Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Leutenegger, W. &J. T. Kelly, 1977. Relationships of sexual dimorphism in canine size and body size to social, behavioral and ecological correlates in anthropoid primates.Primates, 18: 117–136.Google Scholar
- Mittermeier, R. A. &A. F. Coimbra-Filho, 1981. Systematics: species and subspecies. In:Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates,A. F. Coimbra-Filho &R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 29–109.Google Scholar
- Miyake, I., Y. Nakano, K. Mizuno, &K. Yamamoto, 1977.SPSS Statistical Package. II Analysis, Toyokeizaishinposha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Napier, J. R. &P. H. Napier, 1985.The Natural History of the Primates. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
- Napier, P. H., 1976.Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 5–33.Google Scholar
- Orlosky, F. J., 1973. Comparative dental morphology of extent and extinct Cebidae. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
- Oxnard, C. E., S. S. Lieberman, &B. R. Gelvin, 1985. Sexual dimorphism in dental dimensions in higher primates.Amer. J. Primatol., 8: 127–152.Google Scholar
- Rosenberger, A. L., 1979.Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Ph.D. dissertation, City Univ. of New York, New York.Google Scholar
- Setoguchi, T., 1982. Is there sexual dimorphism in the Miocene primateStirtonia, an ancestor ofAlouatta? Kikan Jinruigaku, 13: 3–33. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- , 1983. Sexual dimorphism inSaimiri dentition.Kikan Jinruigaku, 14: 29–45. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Swindler, D. R., 1976.Dentition of Living Primates. Academic Press, London, New York, & San Francisco.Google Scholar